How Vitamins were Discovered

from AWAKE! — January 22, 1977

{ Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid;   C6H8O6 }

{ B6 – Pyridoxine Hydrochloride; C8H11NO3 • HCl }

The Dreaded "Scurvy Infection".

The sailor's legs were so swollen that the man could not walk. His captain, hoping to stop the spread of the dreaded "scurvy infection," put the man ashore on a desolate Atlantic island. The poor wretch was bound to die, the captain felt, but perhaps the rest of the crew could thus be saved.

The deserted man chewed on fresh grass that he found in tufts here and there on the island. To his amazement, in a few days he could walk a little! His strength soon returned and eventually he managed to get picked up by a passing ship and he returned to his London home. Imagine, the shock of his former shipmates when they first saw him, — it was as if he had been resurrected !!!

The story of the sailor who "ate grass, like a beast and lived" was of great interest to a Scottish surgeon Dr. James Lind. Having been with the British fleet, he was aware of the thousands of seamen who died yearly with scurvy. Lind's question was, Did the grass contain something that the man's normal diet did not? Was there a connection between scurvy and diet? Deciding to experiment, Lind became responsible for an important chapter in the story of "how they found your vitamins."

Not that Dr. Lind was looking for a vitamin. The word was unheard of before 1911. The discovery of most vitamins was really accidental in that the researchers were attacking specific diseases, not studying foods or nutrition.

Further, this story has no one hero, but involves the efforts of men from many countries. These pioneers frequently did not benefit from one another's discoveries, as they lacked the benefits of modern communications. Yet, sometimes, despite the scorn of contemporary doctors and scientists, the efforts of these men constitute a story of courage, perseverance and eventual success.

The Vitamin C Story

"On 20th May, 1747, I took twelve patients in the scurvy ... Their cases were as similar as I could have them," begins Dr. Lind's report. His conclusions showed "that the most sudden, and visible good effects were perceived from the use of the oranges and lemons; of those who had taken them being at the end of the six days fit for duty."

Did the medical world of his day rejoice? No. Rather, the idea that diet causes scurvy was scorned and repudiated. Did not the crews of some ships drink lemon juice and still have scurvy? Unfortunately, this was true, but they had boiled the lemon juice, destroying what we now know as vitamin C.

Finally, some forty–seven years later, the British Admiralty allowed Lind to repeat his experiment. A whole fleet of ships was supplied with enough raw lemon juice for a twenty–three–week voyage. The results were so spectacular that a year later, in 1795, lemon juice ( later replaced by lime juice ) was made part of the regulation diet of British seamen. Scurvy was no longer "master of the waves," and even today British sailors are nicknamed "limeys"!

However, progress in isolating the reason for the effectiveness of lemons, and other fruits and vegetables came very slowly. In 1905 a Dutchman, Professor Pekelharing, following his experiments upon mice, wrote: "There is an unknown substance contained in the milk, which even when the intake is extremely small, is of the utmost importance for nutrition." He showed that even in the seeming midst of plenty of food ( fats, proteins, carbohydrates ), if this "unknown substance" was missing; the mice would die. Unfortunately, his report was published only in Dutch and was not widely circulated.

Despite such setbacks, the idea of necessary "mysterious elements" eventually was published, and believed. You could eat great quantities of "good foods" and still not get the "necessary elements." They were not fuel for the body but were somehow needed by it chemically. Could one of these be isolated?

By the early 1900's several teams of scientists were "hot on the trail" of the mysterious anti–scurvy substance. In 1931, a concentrate was made from lemon juice that was 20,000 times as potent as the original juice! Now came an intensive effort to discern the exact nature of this vital compound. Once its molecular "chain" or structure was determined, it could be synthesized and mass–produced. And so it happened that by 1935 vitamin C ( also properly named ascorbic acid ) became the first "pure" vitamin made available to the public through large–scale production.

But more than a vitamin was discovered in the search of a cure for scurvy. Man learned that illness is not always caused by the attack of some infection or bacteria. It is sometimes caused by a deficiency in diet.

That Complex B Family

The GERM of the seed contains the B Complex.

The first clues to the existence of the B vitamins came in the fight against the dreaded disease beriberi, which attacks the nerves and heart. Beriberi also affects the digestive system. Our story again takes us out to sea.

[ The B vitamins are in the "germ" of the seed — the part that grows ! ]

In the early 1880's, at the direction of a young Japanese medical officer, Kanehiro Takaki, two ships left Japan on similar voyages, but with different diets. The first ship served the usual fare of rice, ... with some vegetables and fish. The second, however, also served the crew wheat and milk, in addition to more meat than was served on the first ship.

The results were convincing. Beriberi ravaged the first ship, causing twenty–five deaths. There were no deaths on the second ship. Takaki soon succeeded in persuading the Japanese Admiralty to adopt a new diet for the entire navy.

When news of this was published in England, you might have expected deep interest to be shown, but that was not the case. Rather, it remained for a young Dutchman, Christiaan Eijkman, to convince the Western world of nutrition's value against beriberi.

Working on Java, where beriberi then was rampant, Eijkman made an observation that changed his whole approach to the problem. Some chickens kept for experimental purposes had been exposed to what was then thought to be the beriberi "infection." Yet, instead of dying, in time they all recovered. How could this be, pondered Eijkman? He checked every possible variable and found only one clue. For a time the chickens had been on the polished "white" rice, but then they had been put back on their usual fare, the native, unpolished "brown" rice.

With tests made upon humans, Eijkman soon established that those who ate the unrefined rice did not get beriberi, while those who ate the supposedly better, polished rice did. Initially, this seemingly "too simple to believe" answer was rejected, but Eijkman doggedly supported his claims with more and more research.

The full vindication of his approach, however, was left to others. The "vital substance" in rice hulls finally was isolated by a Polish chemist, Casimir Funk. Then, R. R. Williams, an American chemist spent years determining the molecular structure and synthesizing the vitamin that was named Thiaxnine.

Still, much about the size and function of that complex B family was not appreciated with the discovery of thiamine. But the battle against pellagra would unlock that door.

In Italian "pellagra" means "rough skin." But this malady brings much more. It eventually leads to insanity and death. As is often true in the vitamin story, many individual pioneers linked the disease with nutrition. However, even in the mid–1800's, since pellagra was found mostly among poor rural folk who lived chiefly on corn, popular theories attributed it to "corn poison" and "infection."

In 1915 more than 10,000 people died of pellagra in the United States alone. With its rapid spread, the United States Health Department sent Dr. Joseph Goldberger to the deep South, where this plague had reached epidemic proportions.

What Goldberger found was appalling — the victims were listless, slumped, covered with blotches. In view of the poor hygiene among many, with flies crawling everywhere, he easily could have been misled as to the real cause. But Goldberger suspected that the answer lay in faulty diet. He had noted that in state asylums the patients developed pellagra but the staff did not. Why? There was frequent contact between the two groups. But the staff had a diet of milk, meat, and eggs, whereas the patients lived mostly on cereals.

Yet, even while newspapers printed the results of his studies as to the need for protein, a commission published the view that pellagra was an infectious disease caused by the sting of the stable fly! Goldberger was horrified. He firmly believed that until nutrition was recognized as the cause, people would continue to die by the thousands. What could he do to prove that infection was not the cause?

He announced that, under, medical supervision, he and fifteen other volunteers would "infect" themselves by taking mucus from pellagra victims into their bodies. To the great surprise of many, none of the Volunteers developed pellagra. From that time forward, Goldberger's conclusion that a diet consisting of cornmeal, rice and pork fat lead to pellagra was accepted.

Yet Goldberger never found the exact substance that prevented the sickness he fought. Time after time it eluded him. We can recognize his difficulties when we appreciate that the B vitamin is really a family of complex substances, not easily separated from one another. It was not until 1937 that another researcher, Dr. Conrad Elvehjem, working with liver concentrates, isolated nicotinic acid, better known as niacin.

Today niacin is considered a "dietary essential."   Without niacin, other B vitamins cannot function properly in the body.   And the vitamin B complex or family still is under intense investigation, with some fifteen distinct members presently being recognized. It is generally agreed that, as in preventing pellagra, they work best as a team."
[ There are 24 fractions in the vitamin B complex.   The B–17 Story — an anti-cancer vitamin. ]

*A multi-center study showed decreased risk for coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease with higher levels of folic acid, and vitamin B6 and vitamin B12:

In a clinical study with more than 1,500 patients, Dr. K. Robinson from the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in Ohio showed that blood levels of vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folic acid are important in lowering homocysteine levels and decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease.

Vitamin K — The Instant Success

But not all vitamins were discovered as "cure" for a plague. In recent years, vitamin research has taken a new direction. It has been pursued in terms of nutrition — how any newly detected vitamin might assist in fighting several different diseases or health hazards.

Vitamin K is a good example of this. Its existence first suspected in 1929, soon it was "isolated" and it has been used widely since 1939. That took only ten years. Considering the history of vitamins, we might call vitamin K an instant success!

Vitamin K was discovered in experiments on chickens. It was found that on certain diets they lost their blood–clotting ability. Then it was observed that the blood of chickens coagulated faster on diets that contained sprouted soybeans. Eventually, the role of vitamin K as an essential for normal clotting came to light.

This vitamin, among other uses, has helped many newborn infants, often low in blood–clotting ability, to have a healthy start in life.

More to Come?

When the chemist Funk first coined the word "vitamine," he based it on the idea. that the substance he had found was an amine ( containing nitrogen ) and vita ( necessary to life ). While not all vitamins contain nitrogen, time has proved him correct on the more important aspect. Although a typical vitamin, such as thiamine, may comprise only .001 percent of an adequate diet, it is vital.

However, recognizing this does not mean that all vitamin controversy becomes mere history; the debate continues. Today the differences revolve around recommended dosage, and diversity of application. For example, you may have read in your local newspaper conflicting reports on the merits of megavitamin therapy ( large amounts of vitamins for specific health conditions ).

Generally, though, it is agreed that the men who found your vitamins found a "friend." And scientists readily admit that the list of about twenty–five "recognized" vitamins probably will grow. But, they caution, there is no basis for believing that vitamins are the panacea for all our health problems. In fact, overdoses of some can be detrimental.

So we find ourselves to be much like that deserted British sailor. He did not find the "fountain of youth" on his desolate island. Yet, how grateful he must have been for the renewed strength provided by that vitamin–rich grass! Likewise, we too should be grateful for our limited knowledge of those minute compounds necessary to life — our vitamins.

Science and Sanity

by Alfred Korzybski

Section B.   Illustrations from Nutrition Experiments

We find striking illustrations of the non–el principle in the study of "vitamins".   A few years ago it was discovered that certain widely spread and pernicious diseases were due to deficiencies of some factors in diet. These factors, which normally are present in very minute amounts, were called "vitamins" by the Polish biologist, Funk. The most important vitamin–deficiency diseases are called Rickets, Scurvy, Beri–Beri, and Pellagra. In all these cases, it is important to notice that the lack of a minute amount of some factor may have the most varied, pronounced, and seemingly unrelated consequences. The symptoms can now be produced deliberately on experimental animals, by diets free from the particular "vitamins" and can also be cured at will by feeding them with the proper "vitamins".

Rickets appears essentially as a disease of infancy or childhood. In mild cases, the disease may only be discovered after the death of the adult. In these cases, the lesions have not become pronounced enough during life to attract attention.

The diagnosis usually depends on manifestations in the bones, but rickets affects the whole organism and not merely the skeleton. The children are nervous and irritable, but apathetic. They sleep poorly and perspire excessively. The muscles become wasted and weak. Often a secondary anemia occurs. The children sit, stand, and walk later than usual; the teeth appear later in life and decay sooner. The bones usually become much affected. Areas of softening appear in the long bones, which become bent. In more severe cases, the bones may even become fractured and the head of the bone may separate from the shaft. The general resistance of the children to other diseases is lowered and mortality increases.

Cod liver oil or sunshine usually effects a cure. We should notice the little word "or", for quite different "causes" produce similar "effects" in example illustrating that in life "cause" and "effect" do not correspond in a one–to–one relation, but in a many–to–one relation.

Ultra Violet light activates at the level of the skin, the chemical transformation of 7–dehydrocholesterol ( an inactive precursor ) into cholecalciferol or Vitamin D–3 ( a natural form of "Vitamin D" ).   There are five known fractions of the vitamin D complex.   Vitamin D–2 is an anti-cancer vitamin.

Experiments have shown that not less than three primary dietary factors are concerned with the development of skeletal tissue. These are phosphorus, calcium, and at least one organic compound, which is known as antirachitic vitamin. The work of Professor E. V. McCollum and his co–workers seems to show an interesting point; namely, that the ratio between the concentrations of calcium and of phosphorus in the food may be more important than the absolute amounts of these substances.

Scurvy develops gradually. The patient loses weight, appears anemic, pale, weak, and short of breath. The gums become swollen, bleed easily, and often develop ulcers. The teeth loosen and may fall out. Hemorrhages between the mucous membranes and the skin often occur. Blue–black spots in the skin are very easily produced, or even occur spontaneously. The ankles become swollen, and, in severe cases, the skin becomes hard. Nervous symptoms of a varied character appear, some of which are due to the rupture of blood vessels. In later stages of the disease, delirium and convulsions may occur. Autopsy reveals significant data; namely, hemorrhages and fragility of the bones. Scurvy appears also as a deficiency disease, produced mainly by the lack in food of the so–called "anti–scorbutic vitamin".   ( Vitamin C )

Beri–Beri labels a form of inflammation of the peripheral nerves, the nerves of motion and sensation being equally affected. In the beginning of the disease, the patient feels fatigue, depression, and stiffness of the legs. We distinguish two forms, the wet and the dry. In the dry form, wasting, anaesthesia and paralysis are the chief manifestations. The most marked manifestation in the wet form is the accumulation of serum in the cellular tissue affecting the trunks, limbs and extremities. Usually, in both forms, there appear tenderness of the calf muscles and a tingling or burning in the feet, legs, and arms. The mortality is high.

Pellagra involves the nervous system, the digestive tract, and skin. Normally, one of the first symptoms to appear is soreness and inflammation of the mouth. Symmetrical redness of the skin occurs on parts of the body. The nervous symptoms become more pronounced as the disease advances. The spinal cord is particularly involved, but the central nervous system is also often affected.

Speaking about "vitamins" and how their absence affects the organism–as–a–whole, we should mention that sterility in females may be connected with lack of vitamins. Astonishing experiments by Professor McCollum showed that such diverse phenomena as loss of weight, premature old age, high infant mortality, are largely due to diet, and that even such fundamental instincts as the motherly instinct are also affected. The normally nourished rat very seldom destroys its young and, as a rule, rats are good mothers. If we put such a mother rat on an abundant diet that is deficient in some vitamins, the mother reacts quite differently toward her young and destroys them soon after their birth. This characteristic has been controlled experimentally, and reversed at will by proper diets. Nervousness and irritability in rats can also be controlled experimentally by means of the vitamins they receive, or lack in food.

Link to ... Using Hydroponics to Understand 
the Earth's Life Processes 
On The Atomic Level

Infertility in horses has been "cured" by adding this ryegrass to their diets.

This ryegrass has been growing for seven days under continuous light and "nourished" with a hydroculture solution.

Vitamin C

{ Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid;   C6H8O6 }

  • Keeps Blood Cells Separated
  • Assists in the maintenance of normal blood pressure
  • Repairs damage on blood vessel walls
  • Increases blood flow to the gums
  • Helps maintain thick pliable blood vessel walls
  • Can bond to, and remove toxic atoms from the body
  • Helps the body assimilate nutrients from the intestine
  • Essential building block for Lymphocyte blood cell metabolism
     — Lymphocytes are the "brain cells" of our blood's immune system —

Humans, Apes and Guinea Pigs are the only known mammals who don't have an enzyme system for making Vitamin C in their body's liver.

Vitamin C Molecule 
Ascorbic Acid The presence of the four hydroxyl groups ( OH ) makes this molecule a very good Anionic Surfactant.

Thus, Vitamin C has a powerful effect on our blood's Zeta Potential, keeping our blood cells separated and flowing smoothly.

A ten pound rabbit makes about one–half gram of Vitamin C each day.
( That is 1 gram per 20 pounds of body weight.   1,000 mg. / day / 20 lbs. b.w. )

To match this, a 200–pound man would need to take 10 grams ( 10,000 mg. ) of Vitamin C each day !

A study was done to find out how much Vitamin C was necessary to "saturate" — ( Provide them with as much as they need ) — our blood's Lymphocytes, which are the "brain cells" of our blood's immune system. The study concluded that it took "4.5 grams per day ( 4,500 mg. ) for a woman and More for men".

E. Lymphocytes 
Link to ... 
Blood Cells and the CBC
Ed Uthman, MD 
Diplomate, American Board of Pathology

E. Lymphocytes

In the immune / inflammatory response, if the neutrophils and monocytes are the brutes, the lymphocytes are the brains. It is possible to observe the horror of life without lymphocyte function by studying the unfortunate few with hereditary, X–linked, severe combined immune deficiency. Such individuals uniformly die of systemic infections at an early age ( except for the "bubble boys" of yesteryear, who lived out their short lives in antiseptic prisons ). The functions of lymphocytes are so diverse and complex that they are beyond the scope of this text ( and the scope of the author, it must be admitted ). What follows are a few general remarks concerning examination of lymphocytes in peripheral blood.

After neutrophils, lymphocytes are the most numerous of the circulating leukocytes. The normal range of the lymphocyte count is 1,000 – 4,800/µL. Their life span may vary from several days to a lifetime ( as for memory lymphocytes ). Unlike neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils, the lymphocytes 1.) can move back and forth between the vessels and the extravascular tissues, 2.) are capable of reverting to blast–like cells, and 3.) when so transformed, can multiply as the immunologic need arises.

In normal people, most of lymphocytes are small, innocent–looking round cells with heavily "painted–on" nuclear chromatin, scant watery cytoplasm, and no granules. A small proportion of normal lymphs are larger and have more opaque, "busy–looking" cytoplasm and slightly irregular nuclei. Some of these have a few large, dark blue granules, the so called "azurophilic granules." It has been maintained that these granulated cells are T–gamma cells ( i.e., T–cells that have a surface receptor for the IgG Fc region ) or natural killer ( NK ) null–cells. Other phenotypes of lymphocytes are not recognizable as such on the routine, Wright–stained smear and require special techniques for identification.

When activated by whatever means, lymphocytes can become very large ( approaching or exceeding the diameter of monocytes ) and basophilic ( reflecting the increased amount of synthesized cytoplasmic RNA and protein ). The cytoplasm becomes finely granular ( reflecting increased numbers of organelles ), and the nuclear chromatin becomes less clumped (the better to transcribe you with, my dear!). Such cells are called "transformed lymphocytes," "atypical lymphocytes," or "viral lymphocytes" by various votaries of blood smears. Although such cells are classically associated with viral infection ( particularly infectious mononucleosis ), they may also be seen in bacterial and other infections and in allergic conditions. A morphologic pitfall is mistaking them for monocytes ( a harmless mistake ) or leukemic blasts ( not so harmless ). —Reference—

Vitamin C in excess of our body's cellular needs provides the function of a chelating agent removing harmful materials such as lead from our bodies. You would need to consume about 20 grams of Vitamin C a day for a couple of weeks to realize any toxic symptoms.   ( This follows the general rule that "Twice Optimum is Toxic".   { Confirmed through my own personal experience —Tommy C— } )

[ Citric Acid is another chelating agent that Nature provides for this purpose. So, keep a good amount of citrus fruits in your diet. Citrus also has bioflavonoids*, which are needed to help Vitamin C properly perform its functions. ]
{ * Bioflavonoids: a derivative of a flavone compound that helps maintain the capillary walls, reducing the likelihood of hemorrhaging. Found in abundance in the white part of an orange rind. }

You need to take "Ascorbic Acid" and Not "Sodium Ascorbate" to realize maximum benefits.
[ 120 mg. of Sodium Ascorbate is equivalent in Vitamin C activity to 100 mg. of Ascorbic Acid.   —The Merck Index— ]

A number of studies have been performed looking at "high levels" of Vitamin C in humans. Some have concluded that high levels are harmful. The authors of these studies have a poor understanding of human biology.

One well–done study noticed that Vitamin C increases the wall thickness of arteries and veins. The author then concluded that this was a bad thing. The story was carried by a national news organization. When other more informed scientists pointed out to them that this was actually good, they refused to air the more informed version of the story.

Our circulatory system's "pipes" need to expand and contract to correct for the changing volume of our blood and body fluids. Studies have discovered that our bodies are about two quarts deficient in water before our thirst mechanism is activated. If our circulatory system didn't have a way to compensate for this, gravity would "push" the blood out of our heads resulting in a quick death.

Also, in many people blood vessels are too thin resulting in leaks, which cause additional medical problems. In general, we don't have a good understanding of just how thick our circulatory system's walls need to be. We have only recently developed the tools to studying these types of things. Now, somebody has to want to do it and be able to find the funding.

[ The arterial wall is made up largely of two types of cells. The inner cells touching the blood are lining cells. They are flexible, hardy, general–purpose, forgiving, and fill up the space they're given. These inner cells are the vessel's basic covering, like living wallpaper. Just under the wallpaper cells is a layer of smooth muscle cells. They are smooth, for they are the conduits of flowing liquids. They are muscle, for they expand to let out heat and contract to stop blood loss at an injury. Smooth muscle cells help the heart balance the flow of blood and oxygen to the parts of the body that need them most.   —Reference— ]

Other studies that have reported supposedly harmful effects, have failed to realize that Vitamin C doesn't work alone in all cases. Bioflavonoids are required for Vitamin C to perform many of its functions and administering Vitamin C at high levels without providing its co–workers can account for the observations they made.

If anyone can find copies of these studies, I would Love to hear from you. — Tommy C —

*Pycnogenol: acts as a biocatalyst for improved vitamin C function and improved stability of the artery wall.

NOTE:   Going quickly from a low to a higher level of vitamin C intake may cause one to have very loose stools. If you gradually increase your intake over the course of a week or two your body will adjust.

Mercury has a greater affinity to Vitamin C that is present in the blood than it does for body tissue. Therefore, it provides a measure of protection against mercury poisoning.   — Reference —

*Clinical Studies Document the Prevention
of Cardiovascular Disease With Vitamins

Dr. James Enstrom and his colleagues at the University of California at Los Angeles investigated the vitamin intake of more than 11,000 Americans over a period of 10 years. This government-supported study showed that people who consumed at least 300 mg per day of vitamin C through their diet or in the form of nutritional supplements, compared to 50 mg contained in the average American diet, could reduce their heart disease risk up to 50% in men and up to 40% in women. The same study showed that a higher intake of vitamin C was associated with an increased life expectancy of up to six years.

The Canadian physician Dr. G.C. Willis showed that dietary vitamin C can reverse atherosclerosis. At the beginning of his study, he documented the atherosclerotic deposits in his patients by angiography (injection of a radioactive substance followed by X-ray pictures). After this documentation, half of the study patients received 1.5 grams of vitamin C per day. The other half of the patients received no additional vitamin C. The control analysis, on average, after 10-12 months showed in patients who had received additional vitamin C that the atherosclerotic deposits had decreased in 30% of the cases. In contrast, no decrease in atherosclerotic deposits could be seen in those patients who had not received vitamin C supplementation. The deposits in these patients either had remained the same or had increased further.

*A large-scale study in Finland showed that optimum vitamin C intake is the single most important factor for preventing strokes in high blood pressure patients:

In a 10-year study with more than 2,400 patients who were overweight and suffered from high blood pressure, it was shown that low levels of vitamin C increased the risk for a stroke by almost threefold. This study was conducted by Dr. Sudhir Kurl and his colleagues at the University of Kuopio in Finland.

*A 20-year study in Japan showed that optimum vitamin C intake is the single most important factor for preventing all forms of strokes in men and women:

In a clinical study involving more than 2,000 patients over two decades, Dr. Tetsuji Yokoyama and his colleagues from the University of Tokyo, Japan found that high vitamin C levels are the most important factor in determining whether men and women aged 40 and older would suffer a stroke later in life.
— *Source —

Vitamin C May Ease High Blood Pressure

Compiled by Kawanza L. Griffin and Marilynn Marchione

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel — December 27, 1999

A daily dose of vitamin C may help reduce blood pressure in heart patients with high blood pressure, according to a study published in the British medical journal Lancet.

Researchers from the Boston University School of Medicine and the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University determined that 500 milligrams of vitamin C could reduce blood pressure by 9.1% in patients with mild to moderate hypertension, compared with a reduction of 2.7% found in patients taking the placebo.

Experts caution, however, that the study was too small to be conclusive.


Taken orally 1 – 2 hours before exercise, 500 milligrams of Vitamin C reduces bronchiospasms in victims of exercise-induced asthma,  says E. Neil Schachter of Yale University.

Robert Waters, MD recommends dissolving one level teaspoon of Epsom Salt in a large glass – 12 oz. – of water and drinking that to correct bronchiospasms.  He reports that this usually works better than an inhaler.

If this amount produces overly loose stools, use slightly less Epsom Salt.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
( Russian Research )

Massive quantities of Vitamin C will remove Carbon Monoxide from Hemoglobin.
20 grams per day ( And even more, if you are under a doctor's care. ) can be safely taken for several days.

Here is the Science for Understanding Why This Works.
Carbon Monoxide is a Cation, and Vitamin C operates as an Anionic Surfactant.

If there is a "Health Crisis" involving Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, a "Heart Attack", or suspected "Stroke", it is EXTREMELY IMPORTANT to get as much water ( Distilled or R.O. if possible ) into the person as fast as possible. ( Two to Three Quarts )

Dissolving one gram of Vitamin C in each quart will have additional important benefits. The science behind this approach can be learned from these links ...

"  Lab Books — Diffusion, Osmosis, and The Nerst Equation  "
Dr. Joe Patlak — University of Vermont
Dr. Chris Watters — Middlebury College

" Control of Colloid Stability through Zeta Potential "

With a closing chapter on

Zeta Potential's Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease.

by Thomas M. Riddick

*Why Animals Don't Get Heart Attacks,   But People Do!
Animals have an Enzyme in their Livers that makes Vitamin C !!!   Lots of it !!!   We Don't !!!
Here is the main reason why animals don't get heart attacks: With few exceptions, animals produce vitamin C in their bodies.

The daily amounts of vitamin C produced by animals vary between 1,000 mg and 20,000 mg, compared to human body weight. Vitamin C is the "cement" of the artery wall, and optimum amounts of vitamin C stabilize the arteries. In contrast, we human beings cannot produce a single molecule of vitamin C ourselves. Our ancestors lost this ability generations ago when an enzyme that was needed to convert sugar molecules (glucose) into vitamin C became defunct. This change in the molecules of inheritance (genes) of our ancestors had no immediate disadvantage since, for thousands of generations, they relied primarily on plant nutrition, such as cereals, fruits and others, that provided the daily minimum of vitamins for them.

The nutritional habits and dietary intake of vitamins by humans have changed considerably in this century. Today, most people do not receive sufficient amounts of vitamins in their diets. Still worse, food processing, long-term storage and overcooking destroy most vitamins in food. The single most important difference between the metabolism of human beings and most other living species is the dramatic difference in the body pool of vitamin C. The body reservoir of vitamin C in people is, on average; 10–100 times lower than the vitamin C levels in animals.

Defective Collagen Hydroxylation - One of the Biochemical Problems in Scurvy

“The importance of the hydroxylation of collagen becomes evident in scurvy. A vivid description of this disease was given by Jacques Cartier in 1536 when it afflicted his men as they were exploring the Saint Lawrence River:

‘Some did lose all their strength and could not stand on their feet ... others also had all their skins spotted with spots of blood of a purple color: then did it ascend up to their ankles, knees, thighs, shoulders, arms and necks. Their mouths became stinking, their gums so rotten, that all the flesh did fall off, even to the roots of the teeth, which did also almost all fall out.’

The means of preventing scurvy was succinctly stated by James Lind, a Scottish physician, in 1753: ‘Experience indeed sufficiently shows that as greens or fresh vegetables with ripe fruits, are the best remedies for it, so they prove the most effectual preservatives against it.’ Lind urged the inclusion of lemon juice in the diet of sailors. His advice was adopted by the British navy some 40 years later.

Scurvy is caused by a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Primates and guinea pigs have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid, and they must acquire it from their diets. Ascorbic acid, an effective reducing agent, maintains prolyl hydroxylase in an active form, probably by keeping its iron atom in the reduced ferrous state. Collagen synthesized in the absence of ascorbic acid is insufficiently hydroxylated and, hence, has a lower melting temperature. The abnormal collagen cannot properly form fibers and, thus, causes the skin lesions and blood vessel fragility that are so prominent in scurvy.”

From Biochemistry by Lubert Stryer

Vitamin E

Associated Press

CHICAGO — Moderate supplements of vitamin E, already believed to protect older people from heart disease and dementia, also boost the immune system in people over 65, a new study found.

The research suggests that older people ought to take about 20 times more vitamin E a day than the current recommended daily allowance of 8 to 10 milligrams, authors said.

"We looked at three different levels of vitamin E — 60, 200 and 1300 milligrams, and the 200 milligrams ( 400 I.U. ) seemed to be optimal," said immunologist Simin N. Meydani of the USDA Human Nutiition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston.

The researchers compared supplements with a placebo among 88 healthy people age 65 and older. They reported the results in Wednesday's issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Daily 200-milligram supplements for four months increased subjects' T-cell function by 65 percent and their response to hepatitis B vaccine six fold, compared with placebos, researchers said.

T-cells are white blood cells that help fight viruses and tumors and contribute to the body's defenses in other ways. Vaccine response refers to the level of protection that a vaccine provokes in the body.

No adverse effects were reported. Doses of 800 milligrams boosted immunity similarly in those measures and others, but pushed them no higher, Meydani said.

"The problem with a lot of studies in nutrition is that you find something (beneficial), and people think more must be better," Meydani said.

Other studies have indicated that vitamin E supplements can protect against heart disease, cancer and even Alzheirner's disease, apparently by neutralizing destructive molecules known as free radicals, which result from metabolism and disease-fighting activity.

Too Much of One Type of Vitamin E is Harmful
Needs to be Ballanced with Second Form. (A good source is olive oil.)

*The Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study with vitamin E:

In this study, participants with existing atherosclerosis who received either 400 or 800 International Units of vitamin E suffered 47% fewer non-fatal heart attacks than participants who received a placebo. In their review of several clinical studies, authors David H. Emmert, MD and Jeffrey T. Kirchner, DO noted that cardiovascular mortality could be reduced with the use of vitamin E.

*The Nurses' Health Study included more than 87,000 American nurses, ages 34-59:

None of the study participants had any signs of cardiovascular disease at the beginning of the study. In 1993, a first result was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. It was shown that study participants taking more than 200 International Units of vitamin E per day could reduce their risk for heart attacks by 34%, compared to those receiving only three International Units, which corresponded to the average daily intake of vitamin E in America.

*The Health Professional Study included more than 39,000 health professionals, ages 40-75:

At the beginning of the study, none of the participants had any signs of cardiovascular disease, diabetes or elevated blood cholesterol levels. The study showed that people taking 400 International Units of vitamin E per day could reduce their risk for heart attack by 40%, compared to those taking only six International Units of vitamin E per day. In the same study, an increased intake of beta-carotene was also shown to significantly decrease cardiovascular disease risk.

*The Physicians' Health Study included more than 22,000 physicians, ages 40-84:

In this study in patients with existing cardiovascular disease published by Dr. Charles Hennekens in 1992, it was shown that in those patients, 50 mg of beta-carotene per day could cut the risk for suffering a heart attack or stroke in half.

— *Source —

The Story of Vitamin B–17
an anti-cancer vitamin

More Vitamin Information

The 3D Structures of Vitamins

The Origin And Use of Our Body's Energy

The Somatid Cycle – Cellular Growth – Cancer

The Water of Life  =  The Art of Healing Ourselves

Web Site Link ListHydroponic Reference Center

The Tortoise Shell  "Science of Health"  Newsletter
— Putting an End to Disease on Our Planet —

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