Sixth Edition Abbreviations

The MERCK INDEX of Chemicals and Drugs

An encyclopedia for the chemist, pharmacist, physician, and allied professions.
© 1952 by Merck & Co., Inc.


The gram-mole weights in this book are based on Oxygen = 16.000. If the standard, Carbon = 12 were to be used, Oxygen would have the value 15.9994. The difference in these two values translates to a difference of 361,442,399,999,200,000,000 or 3.61 X1020 atoms.   — Tommy C. —


Dedication

To those who have worked for the advancement of Chemistry, Pharmacy, and Medicine; to those whose lives are devoted to these sciences, another edition of The Merck Index is dedicated, with the sincere wish of the publishers that it may often be of assistance.


Preface

The Sixth Edition of THE MERCK INDEX continues the original purpose of this work, which is to provide a concise, comprehensive, and reliable encyclopedia of chemicals and drugs for the chemist, pharmacist, physician, and members of allied professions. The First Edition was published in 1889, the Second in 1896, the Third in 1907, the Fourth in 1930, and the Fifth in 1940.

This edition contains more than 8,000 descriptions of individual substances listed under the heading: Chemicals and Drugs. In addition to 2,900 new monographs, those retained from the previous edition have been revised. There are more than 2,000 structural formulas drawn to conform with Patterson's Ring Index. The medical and veterinary uses have been rewritten and brought up to date.

In addition to the expanded section on Chemicals and Drugs, the following features of the Fifth Edition have been retained: Tables of Indicators, revised and broadened; Coal-Tar Colors for Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics; First Aid in Poisoning, which is a revised and expanded version of the former section on Antidotes for Poisons; also, numerous tables which are helpful to chemists, pharmacists, and other users of THE MERCK INDEX. The names of minerals and their formula composition have been included in the main text.

New features of the Sixth Edition include a table of standard buffers for calibrating pH measurements; a table of radioactive isotopes giving their half-lives, type of radiation, etc.; and a table of current medical uses for radioactive elements and their compounds. A new section, presenting a list of more than 300 organic "Name" reactions with original and review references, together with a brief description and structural representation of the reaction, also is included for the aid of students and workers in chemistry. The flyleaves contain an up-to-date periodic table and international atomic weights.

Facing page 1 is a description of the "Usage of Certain Terms." Please note that the word poisonous and the information under toxicity are used only to indicate potential hazard to those who handle such chemicals, without regard to the relative degree of hazard or the manner in which they may be hazardous. The omission of such warnings does not mean that the substances are harmless, especially if they are improperly handled. On pages 1145 to 1157 will be found some directions for first aid in case of poisoning. This is followed by a list of substances which are commonly considered to be poisonous, with a description or reference to the first aid methods which should be employed while a physician is being called. This list cannot be considered complete, and omission of a substance, or class of substances, does not necessarily mean that they are nonpoisonous. The book is not intended to furnish complete toxicity data on chemical substances. These brief references have been included ordy for the general information and guidance of the reader.

The publishers wish to extend their appreciation to the editorial staff of THE MERCK INDEX, to the laboratory scientists within the Company, and to the outside consultants in the various branches of science who contributed time, information, and advice.

 
 
What is The Merck Index?

The Merck Index is a one volume encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals that contains more than 10,000 monographs. Each monograph is a concise description of a single substance or a small group of closely related compounds. The subjects covered include human and veterinary drugs, biologicals and natural products, agricultural chemicals, industrial and laboratory chemicals, and environmentally significant compounds. The information provided includes chemical, common and generic names, trademarks and their associated companies, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers, molecular formulae and weights, physical and toxicity data, therapeutic and commercial uses, citations to the chemical, biomedical and patent literature, and chemical structures. In addition, there are Name, Formulae, CAS Registry Number and Therapeutic Category / Biological Activity indices. The collection of supplementary tables contains physical, chemical and biomedical data and listings of pharmaceutical company names, locations and experimental drug codes. The Organic Name Reactions section has been reintroduced with revised and updated content.


Abbreviations

A. .......... Angstrom unit(s)
abs ......... absolute
abstr. ...... abstract
Ac .......... acetyl CH3CO-;
ethyl acetate AcOEt; acetic acid ACOH; acetic anhydride Ac2O

acc ......... according
A.C.S ....... American Chemical Society
act. ........ active
add. ........ adding
addn. ....... addition
A.E.C. ...... (United States) Atomic Energy Commission
alc. ........ alcohol(ic); ethanol; ethyl alcohol
alcoh. ...... alcohol(ic); ethanol; ethyl alcohol
alk. ........ alkali(ne)
??? ......... specific optical rotation at 25°C. for D (sodium) line
Am .......... amyl
ammon. ...... ammonia
amorph. ..... amorphous
amt. ........ amount
anhydr. ..... anhydrous
anti- ....... anti (stereomeric opposite of syn-)
approx. ..... approximate(ly)
aq. ......... aqueous
Ar .......... aryl
ArCO- ....... aromatic acyl radical
assoc. ...... association
assocd. ..... associated
assocn. ..... association
A.S.T.M. .... American Society for Testing Materials
asym. ....... asymmetrical, unsymmetrical
at. ......... atomic
atm. ........ atmosphere(s), atmospheric
atmos. ...... atmosphere(s), atmospheric
at. no. ..... atomic number
at. wt. ..... atomic weight
b. .......... boils;
boils at; boiling at (always followed by a figure denoting temperature) (the pressure, if different from one atm., is indicated by a subscript. Example.- b70 48° means boils at 48°C. if the pressure is 70 mm. Hg)

B ........... base.
Example: if the formula of an alkaloid is C2lH23NO5, the abbreviated formula for the hydrochloride may be written B.HCl instead of C2lH23NO5.HCl.

B .......... Bacillus, used only in genus and species names
Be'. ........ Baume' (a kind of specific gravity scale)
Belg. pat. .. Belgian patent
biol. ....... biological
B.I.O.S. .... British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee
B.O.D. ...... biochemical oxygen demand
boil. ....... boiling
b.p. ........ boiling point
B.P. ........ British Pharmacopela
b.r. ........ boiling range
Brit. pat. .. British patent
B.t.u. ...... British thermal units
Bu .......... butyl (normal butyl)
Bz .......... benzoyl C6H5.CO– BzH, benzaldehyde; BzOH, benzoic acid
c ........... concentration by volume
(after optical rotations only). Example: [a]25D +14° (c = 2.5 in abs. alcohol) means 2.5 g. of the substance dissolved in 100 ml. abs. alcohol; when no solvent is given, the solvent is water.

C. .......... Centigrade degrees
ca. ......... (circa) about
C.A ......... Chemical Abstracts
cal. ........ calorie(s)
calc. ....... calculate
calcd. ...... calculated
Can. pat. ... Canadian patent
cc. ......... cubic centimeter(s)
cf. ......... (confer) compare
chem. ....... chemical
C.I. ........ Colour Index (British book)
cis- ........ stereochemical opposite of trans-
cm. ......... centimeter(s)
coll. vol. .. collective volume
compd. ...... compound
compn. ...... composition
conc. ....... concentrated
concd. ...... concentrated
concentr. ... concentrated
concn. ...... concentration
constit. .... constituent
contg. ...... containing
cor(r)....... corrected
C.P. ........ chemically pure
cpd. ........ compound
cryst. ...... crystalline
crystn. ..... crystallization
cu. m. ...... cubic meter(s)
d. .......... density;
specific gravity (d194 specific gravity at 19° referred to water at 4°).

d .......... dextro(rotatory),
refers to optical rotation, indicating that a soln. of the substance is capable of turning the plane of polarized light to the right.

D ........... dextro
(in configurational sense only). Used before carbohydrates and amino acids to show that the groups at the significant asymmetric carbon atom are placed at the right. In carbohydrate nomenclature the configuration of the highest numbered asymmetric carbon atom determines the prefix that is used. Carbohydrate nomenclature is based upon the glyceric aldehydes, the dextrorotatory isomer being by convention designated D-glyceric aldehyde. In the amino acid field, it is the configuration of the lowest numbered asymnietric carbon atom, i.e., the alpha-carbon atom, that determines the prefix, as in D-alanine.

dec. ........ decompose(s)
decomp. ..... decompose(s)
decompn. .... decomposition
deliquesc. .. deliquescent
deriv. ...... derivative
determn. .... determination
diff. ....... difference
dil. ........ dilute
dild. ....... diluted
diln. ....... dilution
dl ......... racemic; optically inactive by external compensation as contrasted with meso-.
DL .......... racemic; optically inactive by external compensation as contrasted with meso-.
dm. ......... decimeter(s)
D.R.P. ...... (Deutsches Reichs-Patent) German patent
E1%1 cm ..... the absorbency of a solution
containing one gram per 100 ml. contained in a cell having an absorption path of one centimeter.

ed. ......... edition
e.g. ........ (exempli gratia) for example
eidem ....... the same (authors), plural of idem
e.m.f. ...... electromotive force
en .......... ethylenediamine (in formulas)
equiv. ...... equivalent
esp. ........ especially
esu ......... electrostatic units of electrical charge;
the amount of electrical charge which in a vacuum will repel a like charge at a distance of one centimeter with a force of one dyne.

Et .......... ethyl
et al. ...... (et alii) and others
etc. ........ et cetera
Et2O ........ ether
EtOH ........ ethyl alcohol
evac. ....... evacuated
evapn. ...... evaporation
ext. ........ extract
extd. ....... extracted
extern. ..... externally
F. .......... Fahrenheit degrees; also Fourneau
F.D.A. ...... Food and Drug Administration
FD&C ........ Food, Drug and Cosmetic (Act)
ff. ......... following
FFC ......... free from chlorine
FIAT ........ Field Information Agency, Technical (U.S. reports)
f.P. ........ freezing point
Frdl. ....... P. Friedländer's Fortschritte der Teerfarbenfabrikation (a Collection of patents)
g. .......... gram(s)
?. .......... (gamma) microgram(s)
gal. ........ gallon(s)
gem. ....... geminate (two substituents on the same atom)
geol. ....... geological
Ger. pat. ... German patent
G.I. ........ gastrointestinal
g./l. ....... grams per liter
G.U. ........ genitourinary
habit. ...... habitat
hr. ......... hour
i- ......... optically inactive by internal compensation as i-inositol; archaic for meso-.
ibid. ...... (ibidem) at the same place
I.C.C. ...... Interstate Commerce Commission
I.C.I. ...... Imperial Chemical Industries
idem ....... the same (author); plural: eidem, the same (authors)
i.e. ........ (id est) that is
I.G. (Farben) Interessengemeinschaft der Farbenindustrie, Aktiengesellschaft
i.m. ........ intramuscular
incompat. ... incompatibility
inorg. ...... inorganic
intern. ..... internal
isoln. ...... isolation
I.U. ........ international unit
I.U.C. ...... International Union of Chemistry
i.v. ........ intravenous
K ........... ionization constant;
if preceded by degree sign, degrees Kelvin; also symbol for characteristic X-rays originating in the "K" orbital shell.

kcal. ....... kilocalorie(s)
kg. ......... Kilogram(s)
l. .......... liter
l. ......... levo (rotatory), the opposite of d, which see also.
L. .......... levo (in configurational sense only), the opposite of D, which see also.
lab. ........ laboratory
lb. ......... pound(s)
L.D. ........ Lethal Dose
In. ......... logarithm (natural)
loc. cit. .. (loco citato) in the place cited
log ......... logarithm (common)
m. .......... melts, melting at, when followed by a figure denoting temperature; otherwise it stands for meter.
m .......... meta
M ........... molar
max. ........ maximum, maxima
M.C.A. ...... Manufacturing Chemists Aasociation
MD .......... molecular rotation
Me .......... methyl, CH3-
MeOH ........ methyl alcohol CH3OH
Me2CO ....... acetone
med. ........ medical
m.e.v ....... million electron volts
manuf. ...... manufacture
mfr. ........ manufacture
mfg. ........ manufacturing
mg. ......... milligram
microcryst. . microcrystalline
min. ........ minimum, also minute(s)
ml. ......... milliliter (cubic centimeter)
mm. ......... millimeter
mµ .......... millimicron(s)
mo. ......... month
mol. wt. .... molecular weight
m.p. ........ melting point
ms ......... meso- (internally compensated)
n .......... index of refraction (n20D for 20° and sodium light)
N .......... normal, (equivalents per liter, as applied to concentration); nitrogen (as in N-methylpyridine)
NCTC ........ National Collection of Type Cultures
N.F. ........ National Formulary
N.N.R. ...... New Nonofficial Remedies
no. ......... number
nor- ....... (Nitrogen ohne Radikal) a prefix indicating a parent compound (no longer limited to nitrogenous compounds)
o .......... ortho
O .......... denoting attachment to oxygen, as in O-acetylhydroxylamine
org. ........ organic
oz. ......... ounce(s)
P. .......... concentration by weight (after optical rotations only)
p., pp. ..... page(s)
pat. ........ patent
PB report ... Publication Board Report (United States Department of Commerce, Scientific and Industrial Reports)
petr. ....... petroleum
petrol. ..... petroleum
pH .......... acid-base scale; log of reciprocal of hydrogen ion concn.
physiol. .... physiological
pK .......... log 1/K
potass. ..... potassium
p.p.m. ...... parts per million
ppt. ........ precipitate
pptd. ....... precipitated
pptg. ....... precipitating
Pr .......... propyl (normal)
precip. ..... precipitate
prepd. ...... prepared
prepn. ...... preparation
press. ...... pressure
pt. ......... point
q.v. ....... (quod vide) which see
r ........... roentgen" unit of radiation.
That quantity of x or gamma radiation which produces one esu of charge in one cubic centimeter of air under standard conditions, i.e, the associated corpuscular emission per 0.001293 g. of air (1 cc. at O° and 760 mm.) produces, in air, ions carrying one esu.

R ........... alkyl, univalent hydrocarbon radical (or hydrogen)
RCO- ........ aliphatic acyl radical
recryst. .... recrystallize
ref. ........ reference
rep [REP] ... "roentgen equivalent physical"
means a dose of ionizing radiation capable of producing energy absorption of 93 ergo per gram of tissue.

rev. ........ review
S ........... denoting attachment to sulfur, as S-methylcysteine
S.A.E. ...... Society of Automotive Engineers
sapon. ...... saponification
saponif. .... saponification
satd. ....... saturated
s.c. ........ subcutaneous
sec. ........ secondary
sod. ........ sodium
solidif. .... solidification
soln. ....... solution
sp. ......... species; specific
sp. gr. ..... specific gravity
spp. ........ species (plural)
sq. ......... square
sqq. ........ (sequential and following
S.T.P. ...... standard temperature and pressure.
subl. ....... sublimes
sym. ....... symmetrical
syn ........ stereochemical opposite of anti
TB, tb. ..... tuberculosis
tech. ....... technical
temp. ....... temperature
tert.- ..... tertiary
trans- ..... stereochemical opposite of cis-
uncor(r). ... uncorrected
uns.- ...... unsymmetrical, asymmetrical
U.S.D. ...... United States Dispensatory
U.S.P. ...... United States Pharmacopeia
U.S. pat. ... United States patent
u.v. ........ ultraviolet
v ........... volt(s)
v- ......... vicinal (adjacent)
vol. ........ volume
v/v ......... per cent "volume in volume"
expresses the number of milliliters of an active constituent in 100 milliliters of solution.

wks. ........ weeks
wt. ......... weight
w/v ......... per cent "weight in volume"
expresses the number of grams of an active constituent in 100 milliliters of solution.

w/w ......... per cent "weight in weight"
expresses the number of grams of an active constituent in 100 grams of solution.


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