Hg
Mercury

at. no. 80, at. wt. 200.61, metal, row 7, col. 2B, val. 1-2, orbits 2-8-18-32-18-2

The Problem With Mercury


{Merck Index - © 1952 by Merck & Co., Inc.}

Mercury, Quicksilver: Hg; at. wt. 200.61; at. no. 80; valence 1-2. Silver-white, heavy, mobile, liquid metal; slightly volatile at ordinary temp. d. 13.456. Solidif. at - 39° forming a tin-white, ductile, malleable mass which may be cut with a knife. b. 356.9°. When pure does not tarnish on exposure to air at ordinary temp., but when heated to near the boil. point slowly oxidizes to HgO. Forms alloys with most metals except iron and combines with sulfur at ordinary temp. Insoluble in and not attacked by H2O; soluble in dill. HNO3; not attacked by HCl or cold H2SO4; converted by heating with concentrated. H2SO4 into mercurous or mercuric sulfate, depending on the excess of the acid and time of heating.

Poisonous!

Mercury salts when heated with Na2CO3 yield metallic Hg and are reduced to metal by H2O2 in presence of an alkali hydroxide. Cu, Fe, Zn and many other metals ppt. metallic Hg from neutral or slightly acid solns. of mercury salts. Soluble ionized Mercuric salts give a yellow ppt. of HgO with NaOH and a red ppt. of HgI2 with alkali iodide. Mercurous salts give a black ppt. with alkali hydroxides and a white ppt. of calomel with HCl or soluble chlorides. They are slowly decomposed by sunlight.

Use: In barometers, thermometers, thermostats, hydrometers, pyrometers; in mercury arc lamps producing ultraviolet rays, fluorescent lamps, mercury vapor lamps; manuf. all mercury salts, mirrors; as catalyst in oxidation of organic compounds; extracting gold and silver from ores; making amalgams, electric rectifiers, mercury fulminate, ammunition; In dental amalgams for filling teeth; in determining N by Kjeldahl method, for Millon's reagent; as cathode in electrolysis, electro analysis, exterior house paint, ceramics, and many other uses.

Grades available: Reagent, N.F., technical.

Toxicity:   Readily absorbed via respiratory tract (elemental mercury vapor, mercury compound dusts), intact skin, and G.I. tract. Spilled and heated elemental mercury is particularly hazardous.

Acute:   Soluble salts have violent corrosive effects on skin and mucous membranes; severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea; kidney damage; death usually within 10 days.

Chronic:   Inflammation of mouth and gums, swelling of salivary glands, excessive flow of saliva, loosening of teeth; kidney damage; muscle tremors, jerky gait, spasms of extremities; personality changes, discouragement, depression, irritability, nervousness, dementia, loss of motor coordination.

{dementia - loss or impairment of mental powers due to organic causes.}


Mercury has been found to accumulate in vital organs and tissues, such as the liver, brain, and heart muscle. Major symptoms of mercury toxicity include Emotional Instability, tremors, gingivitis, and kidney failure. Some also believe mercury may be linked to multiple sclerosis and epileptic seizures. Further, its affect on the body's immune system is potentially devastating, possibly contributing to diseases such as leukemia and hematopoietic dycrasias.

Recent studies have found that substantial amounts of mercury vapor are released from dental amalgam after chewing gum for just ten minutes.

No governmental agency has established safe standards for mercury intake from dental amalgams. Some experts believe "there is No Safe Level of mercury exposure."

Mercury exposure is of particular concern in the developing fetus and in children due to their low body weight.   — Source —

 
The Problem with Mercury


Mercury Chemicals and Their Uses

Meragidone Sodium
Used as diuretic

Meralluride Sodium Solution (Mercuhydrin)
Med. Use: Diuretic

Merbak® -- see Acetomeroctol
Med. Use: 1:1000 soln. as topical antiseptic
Caution: May cause irritation if applied to mucous membranes or extensive wounds.

Merbaphen (Novasurol)
Med. Use: Has been used as a diuretic

Merbromin
Med. Use: Antiseptic for the skin as a 2 to 5% soln. and mucous membranes as a 1% soln.

Mereaptoacetic Acid -- see Thioglycollic Acid

ß- Mercaptoalanine - Cysteine

2- Mercaptobenzoic Acid -- see Thiosalicylic Acid

2- Mercapto- 4-hydroxypyrimidine -- see 2-Thiouracil
Med. Use: Hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and thyroiditis.
Toxicity: Leukopenia, granulocytopenia, drug fever, skin eruptions.

Mercaptomerin Sodium
Med. Use: Diuretic

2- Mercapto- 4-pyrimidone -- see 2-Thiouracil
Med. Use: Hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and thyroiditis.
Toxicity: Leukopenia, granulocytopenia, drug fever, skin eruptions.

Mercazole - Proposed as antithyroid

Mercocresols (Mercresin)
Med. Use: Antiseptic for minor superficial wounds and infections, preoperative preparation, mucous membranes and irrigation.

Mercresin® -- see Mercocresols
Med. Use: Antiseptic for minor superficial wounds and infections, preoperative preparation, mucous membranes and irrigation.

Mercuhydrin® -- see Meralluride Sodium Solution

Mercumatillin Sodium (Cumertilin Sodium)

Mercupurin® -- see Mercurophylline Injection

Mercuranine -- see Merbromin
Med. Use: Antiseptic for the skin as a 2 to 5% soln. and mucous membranes as a 1% soln.

Mercurial Ointment, Mild
Med. Use: Has been used for pediculosis (Does not kill nits)

Mercurial Ointment, Strong
Med. Use: Has been used in syphilis

Mercuric Acetate
Use: Chiefly for mercuration of organic compounds.

Mercuric Aminoacetate (Mercuris glycocollate)

Mercuric |-Aminopropionate (Mercury-alanine)

Mercuric Ammonium Chloride
Vet. Use: As ointment in chronic eczema, parasitic skin diseases.

Mercuric Arsenate

Mercuric Asparaginate (Asparagin-mercury)

Mercuric Atoxylate (Mercury arsanilate)
Med. Use: Formerly in syphilis

Mercuric Barium Bromide

Mercuric Barium Iodide
Use: As an aq. soln., known as Rohrbach's Soln., for separating minerals of different densities; also for microchemical detection of alkaloids.

Mercuric Benzoate

Mercuric Bromide

Mercuric Cacodylate

Mercuric Chloride (Mercury bichloride)
Use: Preserving (kyanizing) wool and anatomical specimens; also embalming; disinfecting; browning and etching steel and iron; intensifier in photography; white reserve in fabric printing; tanning leather; electroplating aluminum; depolarizer for dry batteries; freeing gold from lead; magic photograms; mordant for rabbit and beaver furs; staining wood and vegetable ivory pink; Manuf. of ink for mercurography; treating seed potatoes; manuf. other mercury compounds. As an important reagent in anal. chemistry.
Med. Use: Disinfectant for unabraded skin as a 1:1000 to 1:2000 soln.
Toxicity: Corrosive to mucous membranes. Severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, kidney damage, prostration. 1 g. is fatal in 50% of cases.
Vet. Use: Caustic, antiseptic, general disinfectant; irritant in bony growth, spavin, etc.
Caution: Undue absorption through skin or by licking may cause poisoning.
DANGER! May Be Fatal If Swallowed. Do not breathe dust. Keep away from feed or food products. Wash thoroughly before eating or smoking.

Mercuric Chloride Ammoniated (Ammoniated mercury)
Med. Use: Has been used as a skin antiseptic particularly for impetigo contagiosa and parasitic skin diseases.
Vet. Use: Skin antiseptic.

Mercuric Chloride-Urea, Solution

Mercuric Cuprous Iodide
Use: For detecting overheating of machine bearings, etc., the red color changes to brownish-black at 60-70º and again becomes red on cooling.

Mercuric Cyanide
Med. Use: Antiseptic for use on skin as a 1:2000 soln. and mucous membranes as a 1:10,000 soln. Has been used in syphilis.
Toxicity: Capable of causing mercury and cyanide poisoning.

Mercuric Dichromate

Mercuric Diiodosalicylate

Mercuric Formamide, Solution

Mercuric Gallate

Mercuric Glycocollate

Mercuric Guaiacolsulfonate

Mercuric Imidosuccinate -- see Mercuric Succinimide
Med. Use: Has been used in syphilis.

Mercuric Iodate

Mercuic Iodide Red
Use: In anal. chemistry for preparation of Nessler's Reagent.
Med. Use: Formerly in syphilis
Vet. Use: Blister ointment in exostoses bursal enlargement, etc.
Caution: Avoid contact with hands.

Mercuric Lactate
Med. Use: Formerly in syphilis.

Mercuric Naphtholate

Mercuric Nitrate
Use: Manuf. felt; mercury fulminate; destroying phylloxera.

Mercuric Nitrate Ointment.
Med. Use: Has been used in impetigo and parasitic skin diseases.
Vet. Use: Stimulant in ulcers, ringworm, eczema, foot rot, chronic eye diseases.
Caution: Undue absorption through skin or by licking may cause poisoning.

Mercuric Oleate
Med. Use: Has been used in parasitic skin diseases.

Mercuric Oxide Red
Use: In paints for ship's bottoms, diluting pigments for painting on porcelain, with graphite as depolarizer in dry batteries. In Kjeldahl nitrogen determination; and as reagent for citric acid, thiophene, glucose, aldehyde, urea, acetone.
Med. Use: Has been used topically as a stimulant and antiseptic for chancres; chronic ulcers and fungus infections of the skin.
Vet. Use: As Med. Use in fissured heels.

Mercuric Oxide Yellow
Use: Similar to that of the red oxide; in the manuf. of organic mercurials. In anal. chemistry for determining Zn or HCN; detecting acetic acid in formic acid, CO in gas mixtures.
Med. Use: Antiseptic used chiefly for inflammation of the eyelids and conjunctiva as 1% (10,000 ppm) ointment.
Vet. Use: As Med. Use. In ringworm, eczema, indolent ulcers, chronic glandular enlargement.

Mercuric Oxycyanide
Violent poison! It explodes when touched with a flame or by percussion; hence for commerce it is made with an excess of mercuric cyanide which eliminates the danger of explosion.
Use: As a 0.1% soln. (1,000 ppm) for sterilizing surgical instruments.
Med. Use: 1:5000 soln. (200 ppm) as an antiseptic. Formerly in syphilis.
Toxicity: Capable of causing mercury and cyanide poisoning.

Mercuric Phenate

Mercuric Phosphate

Mercuric Potassium Cyanide
Use: In manuf. of mirrors to prevent the silver coating from becoming yellow; as reagent in testing for free acids.

Mercuric Potassium Iodide
Med. Use: 1:100 to 1:10,000 soln. as a disinfectant.

Mercuric Resorcinol-acetate (Resorcinol-mercury acetate)

Mercuric Salicylate (Mercury subsalicylate)
Med. Use: Extern. for parasitic and fungous skin diseases. Has been used in syphilis.

Mercuric Silver Iodide
Use: To detect overheating in journal bearings, etc., becoming blood-red at 40-50º and yellow again on cooling.

Mercuric Stearate

Mercuric Subsulfate (Turpeth mineral)

Mercuric Succinate

Mercuric Succinimide
Med. Use: Has been used in syphilis.

Mercuric Sulfate (Mercury bisulfate)
Use: Filling for galvanic batteries; with NaCl for extracting gold and silver from roasted pyrites; as a reagent for wine coloring, barbital, and cystine.

Mercuric Sulfate Ethylenediamine -- see Sublamine®

Mercuric Sulfide, Black (Ethiops mineral)
Use: As pigment for horn, rubber, etc.

Mercuric Sulfide, Red (Vermilion) Occurs in nature as the mineral cinnabar. {Bright scarlet-red; considered as a royal color in some cultures.}
Use: For coloring plastics, sealing wax, and with FeSO4 for marking linen; also manuf. of fancy colored papers; as a pigment.

Mercuric Sulfocyanate -- see Mercuric Thiocyanate

Mercuric Sulfocyanide -- see Mercuric Thiocyanate.

Mercuric Thiocyanate (Mercuric sulfocyanate or sulfocyanide)
Use: For Pharaoh's serpents; intensifier in photography.

Mercuric Tribromophenylacetate
Med. Use: Formerly in syphilis and TB.

Mercuric Zinc Cyanide

Mercurin® (Mercuzan)
Med. Use: Diuretic

Mercurochrome® -- see Merbromin

Mercurochrome-220 Soluble® -- see Merbromin.

Mercurocol -- see Merbromin.

Mercuro-iodohemol
Med. Use: Formerly in syphilis.

Mercurol (Mercury "Nucleate")
Med. Use: Formerly in syphilis and as an antiseptic.

Mercurome -- see Merbromin

Mercurophage -- see Merbromin

Mercurophen (Sodium hydroxymercuri-o-nitrophenolate)
Med. Use: 1:2000 to 1:15,000 soln. as an antiseptic for skin and mucous membranes.
Caution: Strong solns. to be applied for 1 min. only. Not effective for sporulating pathogens.

Mercurophylline Injection (Mercuzanthin, Formerly known as Mercupurin)
Med. Use: Diuretic

Mercurosal® (Disodium hydroxymercuri-salicyloxyacetate)

Mercurous Acetate
Med. Use: Formerly for skin lesions of syphilis.

Mercurous Benzoate

Mercurous Bromide

Mercurous Chlorate

Mercurous Chloride
Use: Dark-green Bengal lights; calomel paper; mixed with gold in painting on porcelain; for calomel electrodes.
Med. Use: Has been used as a laxative, diuretic, and antiseptic.
Vet. Use: Locally antiseptic, desiccant in moist eczema, canker, thrush, foot rot. In corneal ulcers, phlyctenular conjunctivitis. Orally, cathartic in horses, dogs, cats. Diuretic in cardiac hepatic diseases.

Mercurous Chromate
Use: Coloring porcelain and chinaware green.

Mercurous Citrate

Mercurous Iodide (Yellow mercury iodide; mercury protoiodide)
Med. Use: Extern. as ointment in eye diseases. Formerly in syphilis.

Mercurous Isovalerate

Mercurous Lactate

Mercurous Nitrate (Mercury protonitrate)
Use: Fire gilding, blackening brass.
{gilding - the art or process of applying gold leaf or a substance like gold to a surface.}

Mercurus Nitrate Ammoniated (Hahnemann's soluble mercury)

Mercurous Oxide (Mercury oxide black)

Mercurous Phosphate (Schaeffer's phosphorated mercury)
Med. Use: Formerly in syphilis

Mercurous Sulfate
Use: For making electric batteries; with zinc sulfate in the Clark standard cell and with cadmium sulfate in the standard Weston cell.

Mercurous Tannate (Hydrargotin)
Med. Use: Formerly in syphilis

Mercurous Tartrate

Mercury-Alanine -- see Mercuric |-Aminopropionate

Mercury Arsanilate -- see Mercuric Atoxylate

Mercury Betanaphthol -- see Mercuric Naphtholate

Mercury Bichloride -- see Mercuric Chloride

Mercury Bichromate -- see Mercuric Dichromate

Mercury Biniodide -- see Mercuric Iodide Red

Mercury Bisulfate -- see Mercuric Sulfate

Mercury Carbolate -- see Mercuric Phenate

Mercury with Chalk (Gray power)
Med. Use: Has been used as a laxative and antisyphilitic.
Vet. Use: Has been used as a laxative for foals, caves, puppies.

Mercury Colloidal

Mercury Mass (Blue pill; blue mass)
Med. Use: Cathartic
{Cathartic - a medication for stimulating evacuation of the bowels.}
Toxicity: Can cause systemic mercury poisoning.
Vet. Use: Has been used as a laxative.

Mercury Monochloride -- see Mercurous Chloride

Mercury "Nucleate" -- see Mercurol

Mercury Oxide Black -- see Mercurous Oxide

Mercury Perchloride -- see Mercuric Chloride

Mercury Pernitrate -- see Mercuric Nitrate

Mercury Phenolate -- see Mercuric Phenate

Mercury Potassium Iodide Solution (Channing's solution; solution potassium iodohydrargyrate)
Med. Use: 1:100 to 1:10,000 soln. as an antiseptic.

Mercury Protochloride -- see Mercurous Chloride

Mercury Protoiodide -- see Mercurous Iodide

Mercury Protonitrate -- see Mercurous Nitrate

Mercury Sozoiodolate -- see Sozoiodole-Mercury
Med. Use: Has been used in syphilis.

Mercury Subchloride -- see Mercurous Chloride

Mercury Subsalicylate -- see Mercuric Salicylate

Mercuzan® -- see Mercurin

Mercuzanthin® -- see Mercurophylline Injection

Merdroxone Sodium -- Meragidone Sodium

Merethoxylline Sodium (Dicurin Sodium)
Med. Use: as a diuretic

Meroxyl
Med. Use: 1:200 to 1:1000 soln. as an antiseptic.

Merphene -- see Phenylmercuric Nitrate, Basic
Use: Antiseptic, germicide, fungicide. Phenol coefficient stated to be about 600 and relatively unaffected by organic matter.
Med. Use: 1:1500 to 1:24,000 soln. as an antiseptic for extern. use.

Merphenyl® Nitrate -- see Phenylmercuric Nitrate, Basic

Mersalyl (Salyrgan)
Med. Use: Mersalyl (2 parts) and theophylline (1 part) as a diuretic.

Merthiolate® (Merthiolate Sodium; sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate; Thimerosal; Thiomersalate)
Med. Use: Antiseptic for surface tissues as a 1:1000 to 1:30,000 soln. or 1:1000 tincture.
Caution: Not effective against sporulating organisms.


The Problem With Mercury

The problem is Mercury simply "Loves Sulfur" too much. So much so, that it will compete with other molecules for Sulfur and can usually "steal" Sulfur out of other molecular structures, in effect killing them.

Mercury (Hg) interacts with brain tubulin and disassembles microtubules that maintain neurite structure. -reference-

If it can't steal Sulfur, Mercury will bond to the Sulfur atom the best it can. This usually prevents the molecule from performing its function.

Sulfur is part of our blood cells as well as many other proteins and enzymes. Many systems in our bodies are very much like today's Industrial Assembly Lines. If one work station stops functioning the whole system can backup or get very crazy.

Hemoglobin
(The oxygen carrying protein in red blood cells.)

(C738 H1,166 Fe N203 O208 S2)4

Enzymes perform very specialized functions within our body's chemical assembly line. It shouldn't be very hard to visualize the whole process going out of whack if someone doesn't show up for work. Imagine cars coming off the assembly line without tires, or headlights, or oil light sensors, or fuses — you get the idea.

From our viewpoint, Enzymes are really "Hyper" little fellows. In the lab, they have been clocked doing Two Million Reactions Per Minute ! (2,000,000 /min.) That means in a 24-hour period, they can do their job 2,880,000,000 times.
(Two Billion, Eight Hundred Eighty Million Reactions per Day)

At that speed, these guys could count our national debt in only 1,875 days.
(5.1 years)

Today a typical adult carries ten amalgams weighing a total of about ten grams, of which five grams is mercury. What little research there is on the rate at which mercury escapes amalgam suggests about half a gram of mercury will escape from these ten fillings over the ten-year life of these fillings, and most of this mercury will be absorbed by the bearer of the amalgams. To put a half-gram in context, consider these facts: Half a gram of mercury dropped into a ten-acre lake warrants the promulgation of a fish advisory for the lake in Minnesota; the tennis shoes with mercury in them that were banned by the Minnesota legislature in 1994 contained half a gram of mercury per shoe.   -reference-

(0.5 gram in a 180 lb. body produces a concentration of 6.168 PPM. Compare this level, to the elements in the " Water of Life". —TRC—)

There are about 1,501,430,636,558,496,585,414 atoms in 0.5 grams of mercury. Each and every atom of mercury is able to disable an enzyme or other critical protein in your body. Over ten years, if the body fails to remove this mercury, a lot of damage can be done. Unfortunately, mercury has ways of "hiding in the body" and can be quite hard to remove.

This 0.5 grams of mercury can produce a potential loss of 4,324,120,233,288,470,165,993,719,156,572 chemical reactions in your body. (Based on our lab example / over 10 years)

That number of seconds equals 137,023,101,670,864,392,919,414.6 years !

As you can see, it is quite difficult to grasp the scale on which all these chemical reactions are occurring, and we are only considering one source of mercury and this one toxic atom.

Mercury intoxication often produces a psychotic state resulting in hyper-excitability. The expression 'Mad as a Hatter' originates from the hat-makers of the 19th century who were chronically exposed to mercury compounds used in making felt and beaver hats. Mercury was also used to preserve leather and the furs for coats.

— MAD AS A HATTER —
Few people who use the phrase today realize that there's a story of human suffering behind it; the term actually derives from an early industrial occupational disease. Felt hats were once very popular in North America and Europe; an example is the top hat. The best sorts were made from beaver fur, but cheaper ones used furs such as rabbit instead.

A complicated set of processes was needed to turn the fur into a finished hat. With the cheaper sorts of fur, an early step was to brush a solution of a mercury compound - usually mercurous nitrate - on to the fur to roughen the fibers and make them mat more easily, a process called carroting because it made the fur turn orange. Beaver fur had natural serrated edges that made this unnecessary, one reason why it was preferred, but the cost and scarcity of beaver meant that other furs had to be used.

Whatever the source of the fur, the fibers were then shaved off the skin and turned into felt; this was later immersed in a boiling acid solution to thicken and harden it. Finishing processes included steaming the hat to shape and ironing it. In all these steps, hatters working in poorly ventilated workshops would breathe in the mercury compounds and accumulate the metal in their bodies.

We now know that mercury is a cumulative poison that causes kidney and brain damage. Physical symptoms include trembling (known at the time as hatter's shakes), loosening of teeth, loss of co-ordination, and slurred speech; mental ones include irritability, loss of memory, depression, anxiety, and other personality changes. This was called mad hatter syndrome. — Source —

The people who then wore these "Fur Products" were also Poisoned !!!


Mercury is added to products to stop things from growing. Mercury was commonly added to exterior house paint until the late 1990's to keep mold from growing on the paint. Exterior paint is designed to "powder-off" instead of cracking and peeling, so the mercury enters the environment as a fine powder. (I highly recommend that you filter the air coming into your environment.)

Mercury is added at even higher levels to marine paint for ships. The object here is to keep barnacles off the hull. The solvents used in these paints continues to "out-gas" for many months, and are very good at carrying mercury into the body via the respiratory tract.

Mercury is also used in ammunition and many explosives, especially military types. Studies have shown that toxic levels of lead can be detected in blood samples, after only a couple of hours of indoor target practice, in a poorly ventilated room. This study failed to measure mercury levels, but there is a direct relationship between the amount of lead absorbed and the amount of mercury absorbed by human bodies.


Cellular Immunity

Antibodies* contain sulfur  and are therefore attacked by mercury — thereby destroying the body's natural disease defense system.     [ * antibody n. A protein substance produced in the blood or tissues in response to a specific antigen, such as a bacterium or a toxin. Antibodies destroy or weaken bacteria and neutralize organic poisons, thus forming the basis of immunity. ]

Major Immunoglobulin Classes

Major Subclasses of Human IgG

An antibody is about 1/700 the size of a red cell.

The immune system needs to be able to create an enormous number of antibodies, e.g., perhaps 10 billion B lymphocytes, each able to produce more than 100 million different antibody proteins. Since humans have only about 100,000 genes, it becomes impossible for our genes to specify each one of these proteins.

Newborn children receive specific environmental antibodies through nursing. (Mother's milk)

Our bodies are constantly creating new antibodies in response to the many different life forms attacking our bodies.

In cellular immunity, cells play the most important role in destroying foreign invaders. The cells involved are macrophages and the various subsets of T cells: helper CD4+ cells, suppressor CD8+ cells, cytotoxic T killer cells, and natural (NK) killer cells. Monokines and lymphokines secreted by macrophages and CD4+ helper cells, respectively, play an important role in directing and augmenting both cellular and humoral immune responses.   — Reference —



It Should Be Obvious

No Amount of Mercury Can Be Considered Safe !


The following information was copied from this web page

Table I: Summary Comparison of Traits of Autism & Mercury Poisoning
( ASD references in bold; Mercury Poisoning references in italics )

Psychiatric Disturbances

Social deficits, shyness, social withdrawal (1,2,130,131; 21,31,45,53,132

Repetitive, preservative, stereotypic behaviors; obsessive-compulsive tendencies (1,2,43,48,133; 20,33-35,132)

Depression/depressive traits, mood swings, flat affect; impaired face recognition (14,15,17,103, 134,135; 19,21,24,26,31)

Anxiety; schizoid tendencies; irrational fears (2,15,16; 21,27,29,31)

 

Irritability, aggression, temper tantrums (12,13,43; 18,21,22,25)

Lacks eye contact; impaired visual fixation (HgP)/ problems in joint attention (ASD) (3,36,136,137; 18,19,34)

Speech and Language Deficits

Loss of speech, delayed language, failure to develop speech (1-3,138,139; 11,23,24,27,30,37)

Dysarthria; articulation problems (3; 21,25,27,39)

Speech comprehension deficits (3,4,140; 9,25,34,38)

Verbalizing and word retrieval problems (HgP); echolalia, word use and pragmatic errors (ASD) (1,3,36; 21,27,70)

Sensory Abnormalities

Abnormal sensation in mouth and extremities (2,49; 25,28,34,39)

Sound sensitivity; mild to profound hearing loss (2,47,48; 19,23-25,39,40)

Abnormal touch sensations; touch aversion (2,49; 23,24,45,53)

Over-sensitivity to light; blurred vision (2,50,51; 18,23,31,34,45)

Motor Disorders

Flapping, myoclonal jerks, choreiform movements, circling, rocking, toe walking, unusual postures (2,3,43,44; 11,19,27,30,31,34,39)

Deficits in eye-hand coordination; limb apraxia; intention tremors (HgP)/problems with intentional movement or imitation (ASD) (2,3,36,181; 25,29,32,38,70,87)

Abnormal gait and posture, clumsiness and incoordination; difficulties sitting, lying, crawling, and walking; problem on one side of body (4,41,42,123; 18,25,31,34,39,45)

Cognitive Impairments

Borderline intelligence, mental retardation - some cases reversible (2,3,151,152; 19,25,31,39,70)

Poor concentration, attention, response inhibition (HgP)/shifting attention (ASD) (4,36,153; 21,25,31,38,141)

Uneven performance on IQ subtests; verbal IQ higher than performance IQ (3,4,36; 31,38)

Poor short term, verbal, and auditory memory (36,140; 21,29,31,35,38,87,141)

Poor visual and perceptual motor skills; impairment in simple reaction time (HgP)/ lower performance on timed tests (ASD) (4,140,181; 21,29,142)

Deficits in understanding abstract ideas & symbolism; degeneration of higher mental powers (HgP)/sequencing, planning & organizing (ASD); difficulty carrying out complex commands (3,4,36,153; 9,18,37,57,142)

Unusual Behaviors

Self injurious behavior, e.g. head banging (3,154; 11,18,53)

ADHD traits (2,36,155; 35,70)

Agitation, unprovoked crying, grimacing, staring spells 3,154; 11,23,37,88)

Sleep difficulties (2,156,157; 11,22,31)

Physical Disturbances

Hyper- or hypotonia; abnormal reflexes; decreased muscle strength, especially upper body; incontinence; problems chewing, swallowing (3,42,145,181; 19,27,31,32,39)

Rashes, dermatitis, eczema, itching (107,146; 22,26,143)

Diarrhea; abdominal pain/discomfort, constipation, "colitis" (107,147-149; 18,23,26,27,31,32)

Anorexia; nausea (HgP)/vomiting (ASD); poor appetite (HgP)/restricted diet (ASD) (2,123; 18,22)

Lesions of ileum and colon; increased gut permeability (147,150; 57,144)

 


Table II: Summary Comparison of Biological Abnormalities
in Autism & Mercury Exposure

Mercury Exposure

Autism

Biochemistry

 

Binds -SH groups; blocks sulfate transporter in intestines, kidneys (40,93)

Low sulfate levels (91,92)

Reduces glutathione availability; inhibits enzymes of glutathione metabolism; glutathione needed in neurons, cells, and liver to detoxify heavy metals; reduces glutathione peroxidase and reductase (97,100,161,162)

Low levels of glutathione; decreased ability of liver to detoxify xenobiotics; abnormal glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes (91,94,95)

Disrupts purine and pyrimidine metabolism (10,97,158,159)

Purine and pyrimidine metabolism errors lead to autistic features (2,101,102)

Disrupts mitochondrial activities, especially in brain (160,163,164)

Mitochondrial dysfunction, especially in brain (76,172)

Immune System

 

Sensitive individuals more likely to have allergies, asthma, autoimmune-like symptoms, especially rheumatoid-like ones (8,11,18,24,28,31,111,113)

More likely to have allergies and asthma; familial presence of autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis; IgA deficiencies (103,106-109,115)

Can produce an immune response in CNS; causes brain/MBP autoantibodies (18,111,165)

On-going immune response in CNS; brain/MBP autoantibodies present (104,105,109,110)

Causes overproduction of Th2 subset; kills/inhibits lymphocytes, T-cells, and monocytes; decreases NK T-cell activity; induces or suppresses IFNg & IL-2 (100,112,117-120,166)

Skewed immune-cell subset in the Th2 direction; decreased responses to T-cell mitogens; reduced NK T-cell function; increased IFNg & IL-12 (103,108,114-116,173,174)

CNS Structure

 

Selectively targets brain areas unable to detoxify or reduce Hg-induced oxidative stress (40,56,161)

Specific areas of brain pathology; many functions spared (36)

Accumulates in amygdala, hippocampus, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex; damages Purkinje and granule cells in cerebellum; brain stem defects in some cases (10,34,40,70-73)

Pathology in amygdala, hippocampus, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex; damage to Purkinje and granule cells in cerebellum; brain stem defects in some cases (36,60-69)

Causes abnormal neuronal cytoarchitecture; disrupts neuronal migration, microtubules, and cell division; reduces NCAMs (10,28,57-59,161)

Neuronal disorganization; increased neuronal cell replication, increased glial cells; depressed expression of NCAMs (4,54,55)

Progressive microcephaly (24)

Progressive microcephaly and macrocephaly (175)

Neuro-chemistry

 

Prevents presynaptic serotonin release and inhibits serotonin transport; causes calcium disruptions (78,79,163,167,168)

Decreased serotonin synthesis in children; abnormal calcium metabolism (76,77,103,179)

Alters dopamine systems; peroxidine deficiency in rats resembles mercurialism in humans (8,80)

Either high or low dopamine levels; positive response to peroxidine, which lowers dopamine levels (2,177,178)

Elevates epinephrine and norepinephrine levels by blocking enzyme that degrades epinephrine (81,160)

Elevated norepinephrine and epinephrine (2)

Elevates glutamate (21,171)

Elevated glutamate and aspartate (82,176)

Leads to cortical acetylcholine deficiency; increases muscarinic receptor density in hippocampus and cerebellum (57,170)

Cortical acetylcholine deficiency; reduced muscarinic receptor binding in hippocampus (83)

Causes demyelinating neuropathy (22,169)

Demyelination in brain (105)

Neurophysiology

 

Causes abnormal EEGs, epileptiform activity, variable patterns, e.g., subtle, low amplitude seizure activities (27,31,34,86-89)

Abnormal EEGs, epileptiform activity, variable patterns, including subtle, low amplitude seizure activities (2,4,84,85)

Causes abnormal vestibular nystagmus responses; loss of sense of position in space (9,19,34,70)

Abnormal vestibular nystagmus responses; loss of sense of position in space (27,180)

Results in autonomic disturbance: excessive sweating, poor circulation, elevated heart rate (11,18,31,45)

Autonomic disturbance: unusual sweating, poor circulation, elevated heart rate (17,180)

 

 

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156 Richdale A. L. Sleep problems in autism: prevalence, cause, and intervention. Dev Med Child Neurol 1999; 41(1): 60-66.

157 Stores G., Wiggs L. Abnormal sleeping patterns associated with autism: a brief review of research findings, assessment methods and treatment strategies. Autism 1998; 2(2): 157-170.

158 Sarafian T., Verity M..A. Altered patterns of protein phosphorylation and synthesis caused by methyl mercury in cerebellar granule cell culture. J Neurochem 1990; 55(3): 922-929.

159 Rosenspire A. J., Bodepudi S., Mathews M., McCabe M. J. Jr. Low levels of ionic mercury modulate protein tyrosine phosphorylation in lymphocytes. Int J Immunopharmacol 1998; 20(12): 697-707.

160 Rajanna B., Hobson M. Influence of mercury on uptake of [3H]dopamine and [3H]norepinephrine by rat braisynaptosomes. Toxicol Lett 1985; 27(1-3): 7-14.

161 Aschner M., Mullaney KJ., Wagoner D., Lash LH., Kimelberg HK. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels modulate mercuric chloride (MC)- and methylmercuric chloride (MeHgCl)-induced amino acid release from neonatal rat primary astrocytes cultures. Brain Res 1994; (664); 133-140.

162 Ashour H., Abdel-Rahman M., Khodair A. The mechanism of methyl mercury toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett 1993; 69(1): 87-96.

163 Atchison W. D., Hare M. F. Mechanisms of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity, FASEB J 1994; 8(9): 622-629.

164 Faro L. R. F., Nascimento J. L. M., Alfonso M., Duran R., Acute administration of methylmercury changes in vivo dopamine release from rat striatum. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1998; 60: 632-638.

165 El-Fawal H. A., Waterman S. J., De Feo A., Shamy M. Y. Neuroimmunotoxicology: humoral assessment of neurotoxicity and autoimmune mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect 1999; 107(Suppl 5): 767-775.

166 Tan X. X., Tang C., Castoldi A. F., Manzo L., Costa L. G. Effects of inorganic and organic mercury on intracellular calcium levels in rat T lymphocytes. J Toxicol Environ Health 1993; 38(2): 159-170.

167 Elferink J. G. Thimerosal: a versatile sulfhydryl reagent, calcium mobilizer, and cell function-modulating agent. Gen Pharmacol 1999; 33(1): 1-6.

168 Atchison W. D., Joshi U., Thornburg J. E. Irreversible suppression of calcium entry into nerve terminals by methylmercury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1986; 238(2): 618-624.

169 Chu C. C., Huang C. C., Ryu S. J., Wu T. N. Chronic inorganic mercury induced peripheral neuropathy. Acta Neurol Scand 1998; 98(6): 461-465.

170 Coccini T., Randine G., Candura S. M., Nappi R. E., Prockop L. D., Manzo L. Low-level exposure to methylmercury modifies muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding characteristics in rat brain and lymphocytes: physiologic implications and new opportunities in biologic monitoring. Environ Health Perspect 2000; 108(1): 29-33.

171 Volterra A., Trotti D., Cassutti P., et al. High sensitivity of glutamate uptake to extracellular free arachidonic acid levels in rat cortical synaptosomes and astrocytes. J Neurochem 1992: 59(2): 600-606.

172 Lombard J. Autism: a mitochondrial disorder? Med Hypotheses 1998; 50(6): 497-500.

173 Gupta S., Aggarwal S., Rashanravan B., Lee T. Th1- and Th2-like cytokines in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in autism. J Neuroimmunol 1998; 85(1): 106-109.

174 Singh V. K. Plasma increase of Interleuken-12 and Interferon-gamma. Pathological significance in autism. J Neuroimmunology 1996; 66: 143-145.

175 Fombonne E., Rogé B., Claverie J., Courty S., Frémolle J. Microcephaly and macrocephaly in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1999; 29(2): 113-119.

176 Carlson M. L. Hypothesis: is infantile autism a hypoglutamatergic disorder? Relevance of glutamate - serotonin interactions for pharmacotherapy. J Neural Transm 1998; 105(4-5): 525-535.

177 Gillberg C., Svennerholm L. CSF monoamines in autistic syndromes and other pervasive dev. disorders of early childhood. Br J Psychiatry 1987; (151): 89-94.

178 Ernst M., Zametkin A. J., Matochik J. A., Pascualvaca D., Cohen R. M. Low medial prefrontal dopaminergic activity in autistic children. Lancet 1997; 350(9078): 638.

179 Leboyer M., Philippe A., Bouvard M., et al. Whole blood serotonin and plasma beta-endorphin in autistic probands and their first-degree relatives. Biol Psycatry 1999; 45(2): 158-163.

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181 Schuler A. L. Thinking in autism: differences in learning and development. Teaching Children with Autism. Kathleen Ann Quill, ed., 1995: 11-32

 


From The Web ...

http://www.pp.okstate.edu/ehs/training/mercury.htm

Exposure to any form of mercury on a repeated basis, or even from a single, very high exposure can lead to the disease of chronic mercury poisoning. There are three main symptoms:

  1. Gum problems. The gums become soft and spongy, the teeth get loose, sores may develop, and there may be increased saliva.
  2. Mood and mental changes. People with chronic mercury poisoning often have wide swings of mood, becoming irritable, frightened, depressed or excited very quickly for no apparent reason. Such people may become extremely upset at any criticism, lose all self-confidence, and become apathetic. Hallucinations, memory loss and inability to concentrate can occur.
  3. Nervous system. The earliest and most frequent symptom is a fine tremor (shaking) of the hand. A tremor may also occur in the tongue and eyelids. Eventually this can progress to trouble balancing and walking.


http://www.townhall.westwood.ma.us/human/boh/index_boh.html

Mercury is a neurotoxin. Exposure to high levels can cause permanent damage to the brain and kidneys, as well as causing harm to the developing fetus. Mercury accumulates in the brain and kidneys. Exposure to mercury can cause personality changes, tremors, changes in vision, loss of sensation and memory. Small amounts of mercury can have serious impact on the environment. Mercury evaporates easily and travels in the atmosphere, and is deposited into soil and water. The mercury that enters lakes, ponds rivers and oceans accumulates in fish tissue and concentrates as larger fish eat smaller fish.


http://www.algonet.se/~leif/fummwr19.html

Villanacci JF et al.

Mercury Poisoning Associated with Beauty Cream - Texas, New Mexico, and California, 1995 - 1996

MMWR 45(19):400-403 (1996)

Mercury Poisoning — Continued The Texas Department of Health (TDH), New Mexico Department of Health (NMDH), and San Diego County Health Department (SDCHD) recently investigated three cases of mercury poisoning among persons who had used a beauty cream produced in Mexico. The investigations implicated the beauty cream as the source of the mercury. The cream, marketed as "Crema de Belleza - Manning," lists "calomel" (mercurous chloride) as an ingredient and was found to contain 6%-8% mercury by weight. This report summarizes the ongoing investigation of these and other possible cases.

Case 1:
In September 1995, a previously healthy 15-year-old boy who resided in Texas near the Mexico border had onset of fatigue, weakness, insomnia, myalgias of his extremities, severe headache, sore throat, cough, constipation, and paresthesias of his feet and hands. On September 16, a physician in Piedras Negras, Mexico, prescribed symptomatic treatment for the paresthesia and cough. Subsequent problems included loss of taste, weight loss of approximately 15 pounds, and progressive weakness in his arms and legs. A neurologist in Piedras Negras performed an electromyogram and measured nerve-conduction velocities that were consistent with a demyelinating polyneuropathy. In early November 1995, the patient was evaluated at a hospital in San Antonio, Texas, where a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of his brain was normal. Findings on examination by a pediatric neurologist included intact cranial nerve function, diffusely decreased deep tendon reflexes, and mild weakness of the lower extremities. On November 3, his blood lead and urine arsenic levels were normal; however, a urine mercury level was 178 mg/L (normal range: 0-20 mg/L), and chelation therapy was initiated on December 7. TDH conducted an environmental assessment of the patient's home in mid-December and did not detect mercury in indoor air, indoor paint, or soil. Family members reported that they ate fish from Mexico once or twice per year and denied hobbies at home or school known to be associated with mercury exposure. However, a container of cream ("Crema de Belleza-Manning") that was used regularly by the patient for treatment of acne had "calomel" listed as an ingredient. Elevated mercury levels (approximately 6% by weight) were confirmed in that container and in a second previously unopened container of the cream. The patient had been using the cream daily since June and was advised to discontinue use.

Case 2:
In April 1996, a neurologist in El Paso, Texas, diagnosed mercury poisoning in a 35-year-old woman who resided in New Mexico; urinary mercury levels were 355 mg/g creatinine (normal: 0-25 mg/g creatinine). Beginning in September 1995, the patient had onset of symptoms progressing to paresthesias (left forearm, right leg, and ear), irritability, and insomnia by March 1996. A collaborative investigation by the NMDH and TDH indicated that the woman had used "Crema de Belleza-Manning" for approximately 10 years and had no other known exposures to mercury. She was immediately advised to discontinue use of the cream.

Case 3:
On May 7, 1996, SDCHD identified mercury poisoning in a 33-year-old woman who resided in San Diego, California; urinary mercury levels were 143 mg/g creatinine. During 1992-1996, the woman had had weekly severe migraine headaches of 3-4 days duration, irritability, fatigue, short-term memory loss, night blindness, and inability to eat products from tin cans because of overt metal taste. Since 1990, the patient had been using "Creme de Belleza-Manning" daily on her face, hands, and chest and had no other known exposures to mercury. She was immediately advised to discontinue use of the cream.

Follow-Up Investigation and Control Measures TDH and the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) are investigating additional cases of possible mercury poisoning related to the use of "Crema de Belleza-Manning."

On April 19, TDH issued press releases recommending that persons discontinue use of "Crema de Belleza-Manning" and that persons with potential manifestations of mercury poisoning or who were exposed to the product consult their physicians. Physicians were advised to contact local poison-control centers regarding the medical management of patients exposed to mercury.

In addition, because the cream is considered hazardous waste, TDH recommends that cream be disposed of in a manner consistent with the proper disposal of hazardous household waste such as batteries or paint. CDHS will issue similar recommendations. For disposal instructions, commercial retailers with remaining stock can contact Paul Thomas, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, telephone (214) 665-6707.

During April 22-30, 1996, the Mexican Secretary of Health seized 35,000 containers of "Crema de Belleza-Manning" in the State of Tampaulipas, Mexico, for testing at the National Public Health Laboratory. Laboratory analyses confirmed high levels of mercury (approximately 8% by weight) in the cream. As a result, the Mexican Secretary of Health issued an epidemiologic alert to all northern border states of Mexico to enhance surveillance for cases of acute or chronic mercury intoxication.

Reported by: JF Villanacci, PhD, R Beauchamp, MD, DM Perrotta, PhD, Bur of Epidemiology; K Hendricks, MD, Bur of Communicable Disease Control; M Rodriguez, MD, Office of Border Health; RJ Dutton, PhD, Environmental and Consumer Health; K Sutton, MS, Public Health Region 8; J Duran, Public Health Region 9/10; DM Simpson, MD, State Epidemiologist, Texas Dept of Health. K Richards, Office of Border Health; D Nelson, Div of Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Planning; F Crespin, MD, Public Health Div; CM Sewell, DrPh, State Epidemiologist, New Mexico Dept of Health. M Bartzen, M Ginsberg, MD, San Diego County Health Dept, San Diego; L Senini, Office of Border Health, F Nava, S Richardson, S Waterman, MD, State Epidemiologist, California Dept of Health Svcs. MG Lombera, MD, MA Ruz, MD, P Cravioto, MS, Director General of Epidemiology, Ministry of Health; O Saldate, National Laboratory of Public Health, Ministry of Health; G Flores, MD, Health Svcs of Tampaulipas, Mexico. Environmental Hazards Epidemiology Section, Health Studies Br, Div of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health; Div of Field Epidemiology, Epidemiology Program Office, CDC.

Editorial Note:
Although the product associated with these three reported cases of mercury poisoning is sold primarily in Mexico, the ongoing investigation also is assessing reports that the product may be sold in the United States in some border-area shops. Furthermore, some U.S. residents residing in the border-area frequently travel to Mexico to purchase pharmaceuticals for use in the United States. The product label is printed in Spanish and lists "calomel" (i.e., mercurous chloride) as an ingredient, but does not indicate the concentration. Because mercury compounds are readily absorbed through the skin, Food and Drug Administration regulations restrict the use of these compounds as cosmetic ingredients: specifically, mercury can be used only as a preservative in eye-area cosmetics at concentrations not exceeding 65 ppm (0.0065%); no effective and safe nonmercurial substitute preservative is available for use in such cosmetics.

Urinary mercury concentrations over 20 mg/L or over 25 mg/g creatinine have been associated with signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning. Chronic exposure to mercury salts can result in central nervous system toxicity, including personality changes; nervousness; irritability; tremors; weakness; fatigue; loss of memory; changes in or loss of hearing, vision, or taste ( 1 ); gingivitis; stomatitis; and excessive salivation. In children, mercury poisoning can result in the syndrome of acrodynia, which is characterized by severe leg cramps, irritability, paresthesias, excessive perspiration, pruritus, and painful redness and peeling of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Acute poisoning with mercury salts can result in a metallic taste, nausea, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, and tenesmus. Renal damage may include acute tubular necrosis and excessive protein, casts, and red blood cells in the urine. Additional information about mercury poisoning is available from local poison-control centers.

Reference 1.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for mercury. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry, May 1993.


http://www.calpoison.org/public/mercury.html

What are the signs and symptoms of organic mercury poisoning?

Organic mercury compounds are very damaging. They are toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin and eye contact. These mercury compounds can attack all body systems. They can cause nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea, kidney failure, skin burns and irritation, respiratory distress, swollen gums and mouth sores, drooling, numbness and tingling in the lips, mouth, tongue, hands and feet, tremors and incoordination, vision and hearing loss, memory loss, personality changes and headache. Allergic reactions can also occur.

How does long-term exposure differ from a short-term exposure?

Long-term exposure (usually work-related) of inhaled vapors is generally more dangerous than a one-time short exposure. After long-term inhalation exposure, the nervous system is the main target of toxicity. Symptoms may occur within weeks but usually develop insidiously over a period of years. Neurologic symptoms include tremors, headaches, short-term memory loss, incoordination, weakness, loss of appetite, altered sense of taste and smell, numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, insomnia, and excessive sweating. Psychiatric effects are also seen after long-term exposure.

Acrodynia can result from repeated exposures to mercury-containing latex paint fumes. Acrodynia is usually seen in younger children. The symptoms include chills, sweating, body rash, irritability, sleeplessness, leg cramps, swelling of the cheeks, nose, hands and feet, light-sensitivity to the eyes and peeling skin layers on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

Methyl-mercury, usually from contaminated food, is very dangerous to pregnant women. Methyl-mercury causes profound mental retardation, cerebral palsy, seizures, spasticity, tremors, and incoordination, along with eye and hearing damage in the unborn baby as a result of the mother's exposure. Organic mercury passes into the breast milk as well.

How do I clean up a small spill of elemental mercury?

Many people have called the Poison Center asking how to clean up the mercury from a broken thermometer. There are several different ideas on how and how not to clean up the mercury beads. Experts agree on the ways NOT to clean up a spill:

Do not sweep the area with a broom. Sweeping breaks the mercury into smaller droplets, further contaminating the room and the broom.

Vacuuming vaporizes the mercury and increases the concentration of mercury in the air.

NOTE:   If you are wearing gold jewelry, either remove the jewelry or wear good protective gloves. If the liquid mercury contacts the gold jewelry, the mercury bonds permanently to the gold and ruins it.


Mercury occurs naturally in the environment as mercuric sulfide, also known as cinnabar. It is also present in some fossil fuels. Cinnabar has been refined for its mercury content since the 15th or 16th century B.C. Its health hazards have been known at least since the roman conquest of Spain. Due to the toxicity of mercury in cinnabar, criminals sentenced to work in quicksilver mines by the Romans had a life expectancy of only 3 years.

Mercury is present in numerous chemical forms. Elemental mercury itself is toxic and cannot be broken down into less hazardous compounds. Elemental or inorganic forms can be transformed into organic (especially methylated) forms by biological systems. Not only are these methylated mercury compounds toxic, but highly bioaccumulative as well. The increase in mercury as it rises in the aquatic food chain results in relatively high levels of mercury in fish consumed by humans. Widespread poisoning of Japanese fisherman and their families occurred in Minamata, Japan in the 1950's as a result of consumption of methyl mercury contaminated fish. Today, we continue to be exposed to mercury in our diets, primarily from fish and shellfish. As a result, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has an action level for mercury of 1 part per million (ppm) in fish and the Michigan Department of Public Health issues fish consumption advisories to anglers when mercury levels exceed 0.5 ppm in fish tissue.

Widespread industrial production of mercury, along with lack of careful handling and disposal practices, has contributed to environmental contamination. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made efforts to regulate the continued release of mercury into the environment. EPA regulates industrial discharges to air and water, as well as regulating some aspects of mercury waste disposal. In 1976, EPA banned most pesticide uses of mercury - with the exceptions of fungicidal uses in paints and outdoor fabrics, and for control of Dutch Elm disease. In 1990, mercury use as a fungicide in interior latex paint was halted by the EPA. This action stemmed from requests by Michigan officials after a child was poisoned from over formulated mercury-containing paint used in his home. More recently, the use of mercury compounds in exterior latex paint has also been halted.

In addition to the early workers in the cinnabar mines, modern workers in industries using mercury are at risk from overexposure.

More than 0.5 parts per million of mercury in eggs is considered sufficient to prevent hatching.

Small mammal studies in the laboratory and in field situations demonstrate that mammals are particularly vulnerable to mercury, probably due to its neurotoxic effects and the high trophic position of mammals in the food chain. Mink show sublethal effects on a diet containing 5 to 10 ppm mercury, including loss of balance and coordination, anorexia, and weight loss (Wren et. al., 1987). Some of the test animals died. Small mammals sampled from fields sown with mercury–treated grain also died.

Plants have also been studied for mercury accumulation. Sensitivities were species–specific, but in general, plants accumulate mercury as readily as other organisms. Aquatic plants are more efficient accumulators than terrestrial plants (John, 1972; WHO, 1989).

Mercury in blood may also be transferred to breast milk.

Because of the retention in red blood cells, methyl mercury in blood is slowly transferred to other organs; this transfer continues even after ingestion of contaminated food ends.

Methyl mercury in the bloodstream can enter the brain and cross the placenta.

Once in these and other organs, methyl mercury can be metabolized to other inorganic forms that become concentrated in the brain or fetus. Thus, even when blood mercury levels are decreasing, concentrations in the brain and fetus may still be high or even be increasing. Methyl mercury also persists in muscle tissue; because of this, ingestion of animals, which have taken in methyl mercury, can result in methyl mercury poisoning.


Historical Uses of Mercury

Rare Earths: The Forbidden Cures
Joel D. Wallach, DVM, ND and Ma Lan, MD, MS
Copyright 1994 — Published by Double Happiness Publishing Co.


Paracelsus popularized the internal use of mercury in the form of calomel (mercurous chloride – a particularly dangerous form); the external use of mercury as frictions, fumigations and plasters for the cure of lues venerea (syphilis) dates from 1497. The famous Italian surgeon and anatomist Berengario da Carpi (1470–1530) of Bologna accumulated an immense fortune by inventing and prescribing frictions with mercurial for syphilis. A colleque of da Carpi, Giovanni de Vigo (1440–1520), born in Rapallo near Genoa and physician to Pope Julius II, was a staunch advocate of fumigations involving cinnabar and starax (tree resin), he also adapted the internal use of the red precipitate (cinnabar) for syphilis and plague.

According to Gabriele Fallopian (1523–1562), an Italian professor of anatomy ("Fallopian tubes"), shepards gave liquid mercury (quick silver) to their sheep to kill worms and Antonio musa Bassatola (1500–1555) of Ferrara gave quick silver to children to kill worms. There is one account of a woman drinking one full pound of quick silver who suffered no noticeable ill effects!!!   [Mercury interferes with cognitive processes making it impossible for sufferers to see logical patterns.]

Thomas Dover (1660–1742), famous for his Dover's powder (opium and ipecac - [A tropical S. American plant of the madder family, with small drooping flowers - the dried roots yield emetine. Used to relieve pain and induce perspiration.] ), believed mercury to be of great value for diseases of the stomach and a variety of other diseases. "To take one ounce of quick silver every morning was the most beneficial thing the world."   ["Mad as a hatter"]  In 1731 and 1732 it was "fashionable in London and Edinburgh to take one ounce of quick silver every morning for several weeks."

In 1735 there was an outbreak in New England of what was known as ulcerated or malignant sore throat (diphtheria). William Douglas (1692–1752), the only physician in Boston of his day with an M.D. degree, produced a successful form of treatment involving the use of dulcified (sugared) mercury and camphor.

In the early 1750's Edward Augustus Holyoke (1728–1829) of Salem Ma. prescribed mercury for pleurisies and peripneumonias. In 1770 and 1771 when diphtheria (throat distemper) and scarlet fever with sore throat (strep throat) plagued New York City, Samuel Bard (1742–1821) professor of medicine at King's College, New York used mercury in children "without ill effect and to the manifest advantage of my patient; relieving the difficulty of breathing, and promoting the casting off the sloughs, beyond any other medicine."

The internal use of calomel was accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms so drastic that in the 19th century, not only chloride of mercury but also the other forms fell into general disfavor.

In the 20th century mercury poisoning from mercury amalgam dental fillings, industrial wastes and agriculture chemicals has been incriminated as the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), Lou Gehrigs Disease (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease in adults and cerebral palsy and other neurological congenital defects in the developing fetus.

Pao Pu Tzu (253–333 A.D.) recorded that metals and minerals had an important role in the search for immortality!! According to Pao Pu Tzu in his Nei Pieu, the highest ranking "medicines of the immortals" was cinnabar (red mercuric sulfide). "Take three pounds of genuine cinnabar, and one pound of white honey, mix them. Dry the mixture in the sun; roast the dry mixture over a fire until it can be shaped into pills. Take ten pills the size of a hemp seed every morning. Inside of a year white hair will turn black, decayed teeth will grow again, and the body will become sleek and glistening. If an old man takes this medicine for a long period of time, he will develop into a young man. The one who takes it constantly will enjoy eternal life and will not die."   [Has history given us the name of even one person who has had success with this?]

"Cinnabar and gold combinations were considered as medicines par excellence and were frequently used in combination with excellent results in the attainment of immortality. Preparations in which silver was the chief ingredient had only a limited degree of efficiency in producing immortality. ... cinnabar was also a favorite ingredient in life prolonging concoctions by virtue of its producing mercury, the living metal, when subjected to heat."

The British pharmacologist/historian, C.J.S. Thompsom found it "somewhat curious that while the alchemist of the west were always in doubt as to what constituted the true philosopher's stone, the Chinese seemingly had no doubts as to its identity. Cinnabar was regarded by the early Chinese alchemist as the wonderful body which was supposed to have the mysterious power of converting other metals into gold, and when used as a medicine would prolong life for an indefinite period."

The Chinese prized mercury as an elixir,   [They would get "high" and have visions.]  while East Indian physicians (800 B.C. – 1,000 A.D.) used it for skin diseases including smallpox and syphilis.

The Greek physician Hippocrates (460–377 B.C.) obtained most of his drugs from the plant and animal kingdoms.


The U.S. ranks 17th among industrialized countries with regard to longevity.


It is an interesting note, that all countries that have engaged in "Violent Unloving Behavior" have had leaders who were heavily exposed to mercury and lead.


Chelation Therapy

Vaccination Hazards

There Has To Be Something Wrong !
A careful look at heavy metal intoxication
by Jann M. Gentry-Glander jmg@derglanderhaus.com

Amalgam Fillings: Do Dental Patients Have a Right to Informed Consent?

Heavy Metal Toxicology

Symptoms of Elemental Toxicities

Mercury Free and Healthy
The Dental Amalgam Issue

9 Steps to Detox from Mercury Fillings

The routine use of intravenous DMPS is not advisable for patients who still have silver amalgam fillings. This is because DMPS may appear in the saliva and act to dissolve the surface of the existing amalgam fillings. The potential outcome is acute toxicity from heavy metal injury to the lining of the gut.

Medicine Reactions a Leading Cause of Death
274 Deaths Each Day, in the US Alone !!!

Thimerosal (Mercury Poisoning from Vaccines)

Causal Link Between Thimerosal and Autism

Panel Urges Vaccines With Mercury Not Be Given To Children

The Tortoise Shell Hydroponic Reference Center

The Art of Healing Ourselves

Hg - Link to Chemical Elements.com

Web Site Link List

Symptoms of Toxic Elements

The Tortoise Shell  "Science of Health"  Newsletter
— Putting an End to Disease on Our Planet —

Tortoise Shell Life Science Puzzle Box – Front Page

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