© 1952 by Merck & Co., Inc.
The gram-mole weights in this book are based on Oxygen = 16.000. If the
standard, Carbon = 12 were to be used, Oxygen would have the value 15.9994.
The difference in these two values translates to a difference of
361,442,399,999,200,000,000 or 3.61 X1020 atoms.
To those who have worked for the advancement of Chemistry, Pharmacy, and Medicine; to those whose lives are devoted to these sciences, another edition of The Merck Index is dedicated, with the sincere wish of the publishers that it may often be of assistance.
The Sixth Edition of THE MERCK INDEX continues the original purpose of this work, which is to provide a concise, comprehensive, and reliable encyclopedia of chemicals and drugs for the chemist, pharmacist, physician, and members of allied professions. The First Edition was published in 1889, the Second in 1896, the Third in 1907, the Fourth in 1930, and the Fifth in 1940.
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Facing page 1 is a description of the "Usage of Certain Terms." Please note that the word poisonous and the information under toxicity are used only to indicate potential hazard to those who handle such chemicals, without regard to the relative degree of hazard or the manner in which they may be hazardous. The omission of such warnings does not mean that the substances are harmless, especially if they are improperly handled. On pages 1145 to 1157 will be found some directions for first aid in case of poisoning. This is followed by a list of substances which are commonly considered to be poisonous, with a description or reference to the first aid methods which should be employed while a physician is being called. This list cannot be considered complete, and omission of a substance, or class of substances, does not necessarily mean that they are nonpoisonous. The book is not intended to furnish complete toxicity data on chemical substances. These brief references have been included ordy for the general information and guidance of the reader.
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ethyl acetate AcOEt; acetic acid ACOH; acetic anhydride Ac2O
boils at; boiling at (always followed by a figure denoting temperature) (the pressure, if different from one atm., is indicated by a subscript. Example.- b70 48° means boils at 48°C. if the pressure is 70 mm. Hg)
Example: if the formula of an alkaloid is C2lH23NO5, the abbreviated formula for the hydrochloride may be written B.HCl instead of C2lH23NO5.HCl.
(after optical rotations only). Example: [a]25D +14° (c = 2.5 in abs. alcohol) means 2.5 g. of the substance dissolved in 100 ml. abs. alcohol; when no solvent is given, the solvent is water.
specific gravity (d194 specific gravity at 19° referred to water at 4°).
refers to optical rotation, indicating that a soln. of the substance is capable of turning the plane of polarized light to the right.
(in configurational sense only). Used before carbohydrates and amino acids to show that the groups at the significant asymmetric carbon atom are placed at the right. In carbohydrate nomenclature the configuration of the highest numbered asymmetric carbon atom determines the prefix that is used. Carbohydrate nomenclature is based upon the glyceric aldehydes, the dextrorotatory isomer being by convention designated D-glyceric aldehyde. In the amino acid field, it is the configuration of the lowest numbered asymnietric carbon atom, i.e., the alpha-carbon atom, that determines the prefix, as in D-alanine.
containing one gram per 100 ml. contained in a cell having an absorption path of one centimeter.
the amount of electrical charge which in a vacuum will repel a like charge at a distance of one centimeter with a force of one dyne.
if preceded by degree sign, degrees Kelvin; also symbol for characteristic X-rays originating in the "K" orbital shell.
That quantity of x or gamma radiation which produces one esu of charge in one cubic centimeter of air under standard conditions, i.e, the associated corpuscular emission per 0.001293 g. of air (1 cc. at O° and 760 mm.) produces, in air, ions carrying one esu.
means a dose of ionizing radiation capable of producing energy absorption of 93 ergo per gram of tissue.
expresses the number of milliliters of an active constituent in 100 milliliters of solution.
expresses the number of grams of an active constituent in 100 milliliters of solution.
expresses the number of grams of an active constituent in 100 grams of solution.
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