The most "Universal Solvent" known.

(A substance that has the ability to dissolve both bases and acids, such as water.)


atomic wt. 18.016

{Merck Index - © 1952 by Merck & Co., Inc.}

Water: Hydrogen oxide. H20; mol. wt. 18.016 Liquid. (Ref.) d4.084.08 1.000000 (ice 0.915); d04 O.997071; d2020 0.99998. Temp. of max. density 4.08° C.

Mol. vol. at 2O° = l8.016. n20D l.33300. m. 0°.

b760 100°. One liter of satd. vapor weighs 0.5974 g. at 0° and 760 mm. indicating a mol. wt. of 18.31. Critical temp. 374.2°. Crit. press. 218 atm. Specific heat of the liquid at 4 to 25° = 1.018 cal. / gram / degree C. Heat of fusion in kcal. / mol. 1.435. Heat of evapn. in kcal. / mol. 9.719. Dielectric constant at 0° = 81.5°. Dipole moment in benzene at 25° = 1.76, in dioxane 1.86.

Pyrogen-free water (water for injection) is distilled water rendered free of fever-producing proteins (bacteria and their metabolic products). See also Pyrogens.

Water is diamagnetic. (Repelled from a magnetic field but not magnetized.)

Thirsty ?

You are 2 Quarts Down !!!

Most cars have a little light that comes on when the oil pump is no longer pumping oil.
Most of you know that if that light comes on you must stop immediately to add oil or risk catastrophic engine failure. The light comes on "After the Fact" that you don't have enough oil to cool and lubricate your engine.

Research has shown that our sense of thirst is an "After the Fact" response. Our thirst craving isn't activated until we have lost about 28% of our blood plasma. This means we have lost about two quarts of our normal seven quarts of blood liquid. Time to stop and rehydrate yourself or risk having the "solids in your blood" come out of solution and plug up your circulatory system.

The reason atoms and molecules come out of solution when the concentration of the system increases has to do with electricity. The electric force is what keeps "atomic systems" from bumping into each other. When the electric force is properly balanced, all the different atoms and molecules keep a safe distance apart and are able to go about their individual work. ( Visualize "Atomic Personal Space". )

"A Bag of Mostly Water"
(— Star Trek —)

75 – 85 percent of our body is comprised of water, with a large handful of soil and about 25 pounds carbon dioxide thrown in for a good blend. This doesn't sound like much, but   Oh! Just look at the final product !     What makes it all "tic" ?

Electricity !!!   —   The Electric Force is involved in all atomic bondings.
(The molecular world is ruled by three primary forces: Electric, Magnetic and Mechanical.)

This seems a little strange when one first learns that very pure water doesn't conduct electricity. And yet, all the chemical reactions that occur in solution involve and require electricity. Control the electric force, and you can control the chemical reactions.

Link to ... Free Radicals - The Cause of Virtually All Disease Water's unique geometry does give it some very interesting properties. Water's two hydrogen atoms are not across from each other as one might expect from the "Ideal of Symmetry" or charge distribution.   Some atoms have electrons in orbits that very closely resemble those of comets, as well as Earth type orbits. Atoms also have a strong preference as to the sequence in which the different possible orbital regions are populated with electrons.

Oxygen was the lucky atom that got to fill its electron orbitals in a manner that produced this interesting geometry.

Link to ... Free Radicals - The Cause of Virtually All Disease Water's Hydrogen atoms are grouped to one side. This allows a small electric charge differential to manifest across the "two ends" of the water molecule.

Link to ... Looking at a water molecule This charge causes the water molecules to line up and loosely connect producing the effect we call "Surface Tension". This mechanism allows a needle to float on top or an insect to walk across it.

Link to ... Free Radicals - The Cause of Virtually All Disease This electric charge also allows the water molecule to "wiggle" its way between certain atoms in salts. This allows the atoms of the salt to manifest their "Ionic Potential" and it's the atomic ionic potential in solutions that creates the possibility for biological life on Earth.
Link to ... Free Radicals - The Cause of Virtually All Disease wiggle


To understand the chemistry of water we need to know about pH.

pH is the Log Scale Unit of Measure used to express the degree of acidity of a substance.

A Water Molecule has one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms.

H = Hydrogen   O = Oxygen

Water Molecule ( H2O )

In pure water, most of the water molecules remain intact. However, a very small amount of them react with each other in the following manner.

H2O + H2O ===> H3O+ + OH

Water + Water ===> Hydronium Ion+ ( an Acid ) + Hydroxyl Ion ( a Base )

The hydronium ion ( H3O+) is the chemical unit which accounts for the acidic properties of a solution. The hydroxyl ion ( OH ) is the chemical which accounts for the basic or alkaline properties of a solution.

When pure water reacts, it produces an equal amount of H3O+ and OH. Thus, it does not have an excess of either ion. It is therefore called a neutral solution.

If a strong acid, such as hydrochloric acid ( HCl ) is added to water, it reacts with some of the water molecules as follows:

HCl + H2O <=====> H3O+ + Cl

Thus, the addition of HCl to water increases the H3O+ or acid concentration of the resulting solution.

If a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide, is added to water, it ionizes as follows:

NaOH <=====> Na+ + OH

Thus, the addition of NaOH to water increases the OH or alkali concentration of the resulting solutions.

Another interesting aspect of water is that the concentration of H3O+ and OH remain in balance with each other. An increase in the concentration of H3O+ causes a proportional decrease in the concentration of OH.   More about pH


Specific Conductance

Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of a water solution to conduct an electrical current. Specific conductance is the reciprocal of specific resistance in ohms and is reported in microsiemens per centimeter (us/cm) at 25 degrees Celsius (C). Specific conductance is related to the type and concentration of ions in solution and can be used for approximating the dissolved-solids content of the water. Commonly, the concentration of dissolved solids (in "milligrams per liter" mg/l, more commonly expressed as "parts per million" ppm) is about 65 percent of the specific conductance (in microsiemens). This relation is not constant from stream to stream, and it may vary in the same stream with changes in the composition of the water.   —USGS—

Very pure water doesn't conduct electricity, but as soon as any substance that ionizes in water is added, you have a conductor owing to the fact that the ionized atoms in the water solution carry the current.

Knowledge of this property gives one a valuable tool for controlling chemical reactions. For one thing, ionized atoms experience acceleration when an electric field is set up within the solution. Ionized Atoms move toward the charge of opposite sign. This effect is used in electroplating to provide a smooth even coating of atoms on your target material. The electric force causes the atoms to move out of the solution at concentration levels far below those of a saturated solution.

Reversing the charge/current will cause the atoms to go back into solution from your material. Electricity can be used to bring materials into solution or to take them out again.

Electroplating can be done without the use of an external power source and wires. "Electro-less Solutions" are available that have their internal electrical forces balanced in such a manner, that when a suitable object is placed in the solution, the metal ions will come out of solution and coat the object.

Again, if the object were to be connected to a proper external power source, the "plated atoms" will come off the object again. And again, if the object were to be placed in an ionic solution with the right properties, the "plated atoms" would also come off again.

This is an important lesson, because all the laws of physics that rule the mineral kingdom are also at work in some way in our bodies. The inside of our body's "pipes" can become coated, even totally plugged, when materials come out of solution. This Process is REVERSABLE !

Dr. T. C. McDaniel has reported success with about 39 diseases working with over 10,000 patients. His method is to administer an I.V. solution with the correct electrical properties to bring into solution the problem material. This method is based on the applied craft of Colloidal Science, known and widely used in many branches of chemistry. Dr. McDaniel's method involves mixing salts that are normally found in human blood, (indeed required by the human body) in a crafted manner, so as to achieve the correct electrical potential.


"Cleaning Up" with "Electric Water"

So, water is the most universal solvent we know about, and we have a flower vase to clean up. Lots of hard mineral stuff on its sides. So we get some "pure water" and scrub and scrub. We can see that it is working, but it is taking too long and using too much "pure water". So, what is the first thing we think of doing ? ...

We Add SOAP !!!

What does the soap do? – It makes the water wetter. – How can wet water get wetter?

We add something to the water that changes the electrical properties of the solution, which then makes it easier for the water molecules to wiggle their way between the unwanted "dirt particles".   Adding a surfactant (a surface-active agent) such as detergent can decrease surface tension, but this will not increase water's carrying capacity unless it changes the basic colloidal chemistry of the liquid by adding a material with negative ions.

Link to ... Looking at a water molecule Soap works by breaking up the electric field which creates surface tension. This allows water to "surround its victim and carry it away".

This works fine if your dirt isn't stuck to securely to your surface.
But what if it is "well bonded" and sticks to itself really well, like the minerals on the sides of your vase?

Water's weak electric charge will get the job done if you have enough "pure water" and enough time. But what if you can't use soap, or you want to use less water and less time?     You then bring in the ...

Anions( – )   and   Cations( + )

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Here is a case where the classic notation inhibits the understanding of the subject.

The reason atoms form chemical bonds has more to do with mechanics than it does with electricity. Hydrogen's positive notation when classed as a Cation, is not because it has two positrons and only one electron — hydrogen has only one positron in its nucleus — it is because with only one electron in orbit, it wobbles all over the place and atoms have a strong desire not to — Inertia you know.

The nature of hydrogen's electron orbit makes it a perfect candidate to receive an additional electron (if the spin is right) to achieve dynamic balance for the hydrogen's atomic system. Because it can receive an electron it is considered to be a positive entity and is called a Cation. (Electropositive)

On the other side of the binary is the Anion. Chlorine is classed as an Anion. Chlorine has an electron in a somewhat unstable orbit that it would love to share. Since it is providing the electron, it is classed as an Anion. (Electronegitive)

When Hydrogen and Chlorine get together, they share the electron in a figure 8 orbital that allows them to achieve a symbiotic dynamic stability.

Hydrochloric acid ( H+Cl ), is what our bodies produce to electrify our stomach fluids. But pure HCl can't do the job by itself.

In order to achieve good dynamic stability, the hydrogen atom and chlorine atom cuddle up real close. It takes water to intervene in this relationship, to allow the electric force to manifest and do its work. The water molecules cuddle up to the hydrogen and chlorine atoms, like so many children wanting to get in on their parent's hugs.


So, what about the Flower Vase !

Adding a little HCl (or vinegar) to the pure water in your vase will activate the water's electrical potential giving the solution the power to unlock the atomic bonds that are holding the minerals to the side of your vase.

Result   ——   A Clean Flower Vase !!!

"Rubber Eggs" and "Rubbery-Soft" Chicken Bones
Here is a little experiment you can do at home to remove calcium safely.

— Factoid —

Water is diamagnetic (Repelled from a magnetic field, but not magnetized, more so when cold around 39° F.). This results from the fact that there are two diamagnetic hydrogen atoms and one paramagnetic oxygen atom comprising the water molecule. ...

Remember,   All this is to convince you to DRINK more Water.
???   How Much Water Should One Drink   ???

Dr. Judith Reichman, during a network morning show, perhaps said it best.

We are all individuals, and so are our needs. At times our bodies use large amounts of water to keep us cool. So, the issue resides in not how much water you drink, but in drinking enough water for your body to wash out all the toxins that have acuminated in our blood.

So the bottom line, she says, "is that you drink enough water so that you can Urinate Two Quarts a Day".

Drink Enough Water for your body to keep cool and still have enough to wash out your system.


Can You Drink Too Much Water?

From, To Your Health - Winona Daily News
By Dr. Paul G. Donohue

You can eat or drink too much of anything, including water. Healthy kidneys can filter 12 quarts of water a day, an amount about six times the body's water quota.

Drink much more than 12 quarts and you can dilute body fluids to such an extent that headaches occur, confusion sets in and coma might develop.

You really would have to work at it to drink that much water in one day, however. People who drink that much water often suffer from mental illness.

Clear urine is not an indication of too much water. More often than not, it indicates that the proper amounts of water have been drunk.

If, however, running to the bathroom every 15 minutes goes along with clear urine, then something is amiss. Excess water can be one of the reasons why the two - frequent urination and colorless urine - are coupled.

Electric Charge Differential


Bizarre chemical discovery gives homeopathic hint
19:00 07 November 01 Andy Coghlan

It is a chance discovery so unexpected it defies belief and threatens to reignite debate about whether there is a scientific basis for thinking homeopathic medicines really work.

A team in South Korea has discovered a whole new dimension to just about the simplest chemical reaction in the book - what happens when you dissolve a substance in water and then add more water. Conventional wisdom says that the dissolved molecules simply spread further and further apart as a solution is diluted. But two chemists have found that some do the opposite: they clump together, first as clusters of molecules, then as bigger aggregates of those clusters. Far from drifting apart from their neighbours, they got closer together.

The discovery has stunned chemists, and could provide the first scientific insight into how some homeopathic remedies work. Homeopaths repeatedly dilute medications, believing that the higher the dilution, the more potent the remedy becomes.

Some dilute to "infinity" until no molecules of the remedy remain. They believe that water holds a memory, or "imprint" of the active ingredient which is more potent than the ingredient itself. But others use less dilute solutions - often diluting a remedy six-fold. The Korean findings might at last go some way to reconciling the potency of these less dilute solutions with orthodox science.


Completely counterintuitive

German chemist Kurt Geckeler and his colleague Shashadhar Samal stumbled on the effect while investigating fullerenes at their lab in the Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology in South Korea. They found that the football-shaped buckyball molecules kept forming untidy aggregates in solution, and Geckler asked Samal to look for ways to control how these clumps formed.

What he discovered was a phenomenon new to chemistry. "When he diluted the solution, the size of the fullerene particles increased," says Geckeler. "It was completely counterintuitive," he says.

Further work showed it was no fluke. To make the otherwise insoluble buckyball dissolve in water, the chemists had mixed it with a circular sugar-like molecule called a cyclodextrin. When they did the same experiments with just cyclodextrin molecules, they found they behaved the same way. So did the organic molecule sodium guanosine monophosphate, DNA and plain old sodium chloride.

Dilution typically made the molecules cluster into aggregates five to 10 times as big as those in the original solutions. The growth was not linear, and it depended on the concentration of the original.

"The history of the solution is important. The more dilute it starts, the larger the aggregates," says Geckeler. Also, it only worked in polar solvents like water, in which one end of the molecule has a pronounced positive charge while the other end is negative.


Biologically active

But the finding may provide a mechanism for how some homeopathic medicines work - something that has defied scientific explanation till now. Diluting a remedy may increase the size of the particles to the point when they become biologically active.

It also echoes the controversial claims of French immunologist Jacques Benveniste. In 1988, Benveniste claimed in a Nature paper that a solution that had once contained antibodies still activated human white blood cells. Benveniste claimed the solution still worked because it contained ghostly "imprints" in the water structure where the antibodies had been. Other researchers failed to reproduce Benveniste's experiments, but homeopaths still believe he may have been onto something. Benveniste himself does not think the new findings explain his results because the solutions were not dilute enough. "This [phenomenon] cannot apply to high dilution," he says.

Fred Pearce of University College London, who tried to repeat Benveniste's experiments, agrees. But it could offer some clues as to why other less dilute homeopathic remedies work, he says. Large clusters and aggregates might interact more easily with biological tissue.


Chemist Jan Enberts of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands is more cautious. "It's still a totally open question," he says. "To say the phenomenon has biological significance is pure speculation." But he has no doubt Samal and Geckeler have discovered something new. "It's surprising and worrying," he says.

The two chemists were at pains to double-check their astonishing results. Initially they had used the scattering of a laser to reveal the size and distribution of the dissolved particles. To check, they used a scanning electron microscope to photograph films of the solutions spread over slides. This, too, showed that dissolved substances cluster together as dilution increased.

"It doesn't prove homeopathy, but it's congruent with what we think and is very encouraging," says Peter Fisher, director of medical research at the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital.

"The whole idea of high-dilution homeopathy hangs on the idea that water has properties which are not understood," he says. "The fact that the new effect happens with a variety of substances suggests it's the solvent that's responsible. It's in line with what many homeopaths say, that you can only make homeopathic medicines in polar solvents."

Geckeler and Samal are now anxious that other researchers follow up their work. "We want people to repeat it," says Geckeler. "If it's confirmed it will be groundbreaking".

Journal reference: Chemical Communications (2001, p 2224)
19:00 07 November 01

— Reference —


Heavy water, containing the recently discovered double-weight hydrogen, kills tadpoles, guppy fish, and worms.

Prof. W.W. Swingle of Princeton, using some of the rare heavy water manufactured by Princeton chemists, found that the extraordinary H2O, with 92 percent of its hydrogen atoms consisting of the isotope mass two (deuterium), is lethal to certain fresh water animals.

Green frog tadpoles survived only an hour when placed in the heavy water. Tadpoles of the same sort immersed in distilled water that contained only 30 percent heavy water, lived happily and unaffected for 24 hours. Paramecia, one-celled organisms that are favorite biology experimental material, resisted the heavy water successfully for 24 hours.

— Source —

Magnetism, Poles and Water

From: Frank Hartman
Sent: Mon 12/29/2003
To: O'Clock, George
Subject: magnetism, poles and water

Dear George,

I noted with interest your post to Carl on magnetism and blood pressure. It was interesting that you picked the South Pole for placement of the glass of water. Given that the general assumption in science is that both poles are equal, I presume you have also determined a difference.

I would be very interested in your determination of the differences and what you think is happening with the South Pole to water.

Kindest regards,


From: O'Clock, George
Sent: Jan 7, 2004 7:03 PM
To: Frank Hartman
Subject: RE: magnetism, poles and water

Dear Frank:

In response to your e-mail, a number of people have done studies on the differences between water that is under the influence of a South magnetic pole vs. a North magnetic pole. They claim that the South pole treated water is alkalizing (healthy) while the North pole treated water is acidifying (not healthy, promoting various diseases including cancer, hypertension, general immune system breakdown. An interesting paper appeared in “Bioelectromagnetics” in 1994 titled "Magnetic Fields Alter Electrical Properties of Solutions and Their Biological Effects." The theory behind that paper involved magnetically induced changes in hydration of Calcium ions. Many physicists and engineers call this a lot of hogwash. Well, I wanted to see if there was any substance to these claims.

So, having a hypertension problem, I thought I would do a little experimentation over a two-week period with water under the influence of a North magnetic pole and a South magnetic pole. Initially, I was a bit skeptical because drinking water (filtered but not distilled), South Pole water and North pole water all exhibit similar pH readings (6.4–6.7, using nitrazene paper).

But when I drank the water, there was a significant difference in a lot of areas. First of all, the South Pole water tastes better, and I get the urge to drink more as I gulp it down. North pole water tastes quite bitter, and I am not able to drink as much North Pole water as well as ordinary water — if I try to drink a lot of that kind of water, I feel like I have to gag. But South Pole water feels smooth, it goes down easy and I never get that gag reflex. I took pH readings three times a day, using nitrazene paper and it does appear that I am becoming more alkaline. In fact, at night, my urine and saliva pH are higher now, than they were before I started all of this. Also, after exercising, the pH of my perspiration is tending to become more alkaline.

Also, it appears that the South Pole water is detoxing me, because for a number of days, I had an odor that was very offensive (if I notice it, it has to be very offensive). I still notice traces of the odor at night and in the morning. In addition, my nighttime blood pressure seems to be coming down as a result of this, but I am holding off making any conclusions on this for a while. Blood pressure is very sensitive to a variety of parameters along with being very cyclical, and I want to make sure I am not just observing a cyclical phenomenon.

However, there is one conclusion I have reached; even though the pH of South Pole exposed water is acidic, it does promote alkalinity once it interacts with the body. North pole exposed water appears to do just the opposite. So, I will continue to drink water that has been sitting on the South pole of a 3920 G magnet and test to see how much more consistently alkaline I can get (7.1–7.4 appears to be the ideal).



From: Frank Hartman
To: O'Clock, George
Date: Wed, 7 Jan 2004
Subject: RE: magnetism, poles and water

Dear George,

Faraday was the archetype of a good scientist but he blew magnetic lines of force. At some level he knew this, and his conversations with john Tyndall showed that he was troubled through his life over the validity of his magnetic lines of force.

He stated that it was his fondest hope that everything he had done would be disproved in 50 years. However, no one ever went back and looked carefully at his work.

What happens when you put iron filings in a magnetic field? They become micro-magnets.

His lines of force are for magnets in a magnetic field. … South pole magnetism reduces surface tension, and I believe, increases zeta potential. This is an experiment I want to run when I get a zeta meter.


A Wonderful Explanation of Osmosis, Diffusion and the Nerst Equation
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