atomic number 1, atomic weight 1.0080, row 1, column 1, valence 1, orbit 1

{Merck Index - © 1952 by Merck & Co., Inc.}

First recognized as an element by Cavendish in 1766; named by Lavosier. Obtained by passing H2 vapors over heated iron; by electrolysis of water or by action of HCl or H2SO4 on Fe or Zn.

Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas; flammable or explosive (3-97% Air / H) when mixed with air, oxygen, chlorine, etc. Liquefies –220 deg.; Solidif. –257 deg.; b. –252.7 deg.; d. 0.069 (air = 1); A liter of the gas at 0 deg. weighs 0.08987 g. Soluble in about 50 vols. of water at 0 deg.

Use: In oxy-hydrogen blowpipe (welding) and lime-light; autogenous welding of steel and other metals; manuf. ammonia, synthetic methanol, HCl; hydrogenation of oils, fats, naphthalene, phenol; in balloons and airships; tungsten electric light bulbs.

Commercially available.

Hydrogen is highly diamagnetic; (repelled from a magnetic field but not magnetized).

Link to Chemical Elements.com


This page explains the origin of hydrogen bonding – a relatively strong form of intermolecular attraction. If you are also interested in the weaker intermolecular forces (van der Waals dispersion forces and dipole-dipole interactions), there is a link at the bottom of the page.

The Secret Nature of Hydrogen Bonds

COLLEGE PARK, MD — January 12,1999 — A US-France-Canada physics collaboration has unambiguously confirmed for the first time the controversial notion — first advanced in the 1930s by famous chemist and Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling — that the weak "hydrogen" bonds in water partially get their identity from stronger "covalent" bonds in the H2O molecule. As Pauling correctly surmised, this property is a manifestation of the fact that electrons in water obey the bizarre laws of quantum mechanics, the modern theory of matter and energy at the atomic scale. Performed by researchers at Bell Labs-Lucent Technologies in the US, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, and the National Research Council of Canada, the experiment provides important new details on water's microscopic properties, which surprisingly remain largely unknown and difficult to measure. z be published in the January 18 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters, these new details will not only allow researchers to improve predictions involving water and hydrogen bonds, but may also advance seemingly unrelated areas such as nanotechnology and superconductors.

Hydroponic Reference Center Project Page

Using Hydroponics to Understand the Earth's Life Processes
On the Atomic Level

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