Special Properties of the "Transition Group Elements"

"The 38 elements in groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table are called "transition metals". As with all metals, the transition elements are both ductile and malleable, and conduct electricity and heat. The interesting thing about transition metals is that their valence electrons, or the electrons they use to combine with other elements, are present in more than one shell. This is the reason why they often exhibit several common oxidation states. There are three noteworthy elements in the transition metals family. These elements are iron, cobalt, and nickel, and they are the only elements known to produce a magnetic field external to their system."   — Yinon Bentor

The Transition Metals are: ...   Link to chemicalelements.com


The Atomic ORME and S-ORME States

— TECHNICAL OVERVIEW —

( "Written for the layman by a layman"   — David Hudson — Cotton Farmer )

David Hudson spent 8.7 million dollars learning this "Advanced Science".

He worked with the most advanced test equipment and people on our planet.


Transition Group Elements

— Description —

There is a group of elements found in the middle of the periodic table known as the "transition group elements":

1) One category of these is called the precious elements:

2) Another category of these are the non precious elements:

These elements are known as "transition group elements". They are in an uncertain state as regards their positive or negative electro-charge behavior, hence the name "transition". Their valence. electron orbitals are always half filled or half empty. (Electrons in the outer shells of an atom are referred to as valence electrons. Different orbital states for electrons can hold only certain numbers of electrons. ) Elements with fewer electrons in the outer shells tend to be electro-positive, and those with more electrons in the outer shells tend to be electro-negative.

These transition elements possess a unique property in that the electrons in the Partially filled outer orbitals can interchange under the right conditions with electrons in the partially filled inner orbitals (d). This is the underlying basis of catalytic reactions. (A catalytic reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs much more rapidly than normal without the catalyst itself participating in the reaction.)

 
Transition Group Elements

Atom Clustering and The Monoatomic State

Most atoms cluster in groups of at least two or more atoms. However, the transition group elements, because of their unique properties, can be found already existing, or can be created and are able to remain, in a stable single atom state. This is achieved by having no nearest neighbor closer than four angstroms and, therefore, by not being able to chemically bind with other atoms. This is called a "monoatomic" state.

In this state, these atoms interact in two dimensions, in a unique continuous linear movement between a strong repulsive force when close enough to each other, and a strong attractive force when moved apart at a certain distance. Only when the repulsive force is overcome, will these atoms aggregate to form a metallic union.

In metals, during the process of going from a many atom state to a monoatomic state, there is a disaggregation of the metal-metal bonds and a loss of the properties characteristically assigned to the description of a metal. Different transition elements have different critical atom cluster size which determine their metal characteristics and behavior. These characteristic physical properties are lost at different rates depending on the element involved. (For example, the critical cluster size for rhodium is five atoms; for iridium it is nine atoms.

Two or more atoms, up to thirty-three, of the same transition group element, when clustered together, are called "metal-metal" bonded. In these cluster sizes, they can not be called truly metallic. It takes a twelve atom cluster before they become electrically conductive. It takes thirteen atoms for their true metallic properties to begin to appear. It takes a cluster of thirty-three atoms before they become fully metallic, and will grow all by themselves. At thirty-three form a "face center cubic", a first basic growth structure of three dimensions solidly formed like a cube. In all these quasi metallic and fully metallic states, the atoms interact in three dimensions. In the monoatomic state, they are referred to as non-metallic and they interact in two dimensions.

In the monoatomic state, these elements have unique and consistent behavior. This is their true elemental state.

 
Transition Group Elements

Superdeformed Nuclei, High Spin Low Energy in the Monoatomic State:

In the monoatomic state, the atoms of the transition group elements lose their chemical reactivity and change the configuration of the nucleus. This change in nuclear configuration seems to cause the electrical change that pacifies the chemical effect. It may be considered as the mono-atom internally compensating for the highly reactive chemical state.

The nuclear configuration changes because there is a correlation between the nuclear orbitals and the electron orbitals as to how full they are. In the nucleus, totally filled orbitals (harmonic) exclude the partially filled orbitals (anharmonic) by pushing them away. The nucleus almost divides into one filled, and one half filled. This is known as the "liquid drop" theory.

This condition is unique to these atoms. The newly shaped nucleus is called "superdeformed". Nuclear physicists have recently confirmed that these atoms will change their proton and neutron configurations when they have no nearest neighbor to di-pole and di-pole react with. They can observe one atom at a time in linear accelerators.

A normal nucleus is shaped non spherically (deformed) at a vertical (length) to horizontal (width) ratio of 1.3 to 1. It is very stable and is held together by the strong force. It takes one million electron volts to knock a proton out of the nucleus!

The nucleons of these monoatomic elements adjust their positions in the nucleus, such that the ratio of their length to width becomes 2 to 1. These "soft" nuclei (those having a number of protons within a certain range and half filled orbitals) deform more easily than normal nuclei. 0nly ten electron volts are needed to cause a superdeformed nucleus to break apart, and this can be done with a mere DC arc! (See discussion of gamma emission below.)

The presence of a superdeformed nucleus is directly correlated to a change in its spin state; it passes from a low spin state to a high spin state. It has been found that the nuclei of these elements have a higher total energy in a low spin state (their internal temperature is higher) than when they are in a high spin state (their internal temperature is lower). This causes the mono-atom to seek the high spin state because that state has the total lowest energy. Furthermore, this high spin state will continue to exist until such time as a nearest neighbor atom is able to transfer energy into the nucleus and convert it back to the higher energy low spin state. (This is called "pinning" in the superconducting industry.)

 
Superconductivity

Researchers working with large magnetic fields discovered in the 1960's that metals when induced into a high spin state (using energies of approximately 540,000 gauss) were capable of passing energy from one high spin atom to the next with no net loss of energy! This was the discovery of superconductivity.

Superconductivity allows the conduction of energy through a resonance phenomenon. Unlike electrical conduction, energy can be passed from one superconductor to another with contact, without resistance and, therefore, with no net loss of energy.

To create superconductivity in a potential superconductor, an external magnetic field must be applied to get the system going. Once the flow of energy is set in motion, however, it is only necessary to keep the conditions correct so that the material remains superconductive. (Note: When it takes more energy to create a magnetic field to keep the atoms in the high spin low energy state than it would take to push electricity down a good conductor, the process is self defeating.)

Atoms could now be induced into a high spin state of low energy and be kept in that state without continuous applied energy boosts. The system currently in use, to induce atoms into a high spin state of low energy, is refrigeration combined with extremely high magnetic fields of approximately 540,000 gauss. The system now in use, to keep the atoms in the high spin state, is refrigeration to near absolute zero. All of this is an elaborate and expensive process.

 
Transition Group Elements

Perfect Superconductivity in the Monoatomic State, Cooper Pairs and the Meisner Field

There are distinct differences between superconductors. A Type I superconductor is what we refer to as a perfect superconductor, with one single vibrational phase. A Type II superconductor contains ordinary metallic conductivity in conjunction with perfect superconductivity, two or more vibrational phases, and includes the many different systems in current use today.

A transition group element in the monoatomic state is a Type I superconductor. It is unique in that it can be found to exist naturally and in a stable state, or it can be reduced from a full metallic state to this state by proper manipulation. Furthermore, once in the monoatomic state, it does not require any outside assistance to maintain its superconductive properties, It is superconductive at room temperatures.

Perfect superconductivity is allowed due to a phenomenon known as "Cooper Pairing" which creates a "Meisner Field". Researchers have theorized that when the nucleus of a transition group element is superdeformed and in the high spin state, a positive "screening potential" around the nucleus (the positive field produced by the nucleus that screens all but the valence electrons) expands out and covers all of the electrons of the element. This screening of all of the electrons allows them to become uniquely paired as mirror images of each other, with spin up and spin down, and without annihilating each other. Instead, in pairing they become, photons of one frequency. As photons, they lose their particle aspect. These are called "Cooper pairs".

A Nobel prize was given to Bardeen, Cooper and Schreiffer for having identified this pairing mechanism. However, this was theory only, and the researchers are not yet aware of the actual existence of this condition in the mono-atoms of the transition group elements nor of the perfect superconductivity of these atoms in this state.

Superconductive flow is made possible by Cooper pairs made up of photons flowing on the quantal (phonon) wave of the superconductor. This occurs at room temperature!!

{Quanta (called photons) are waves of light. A photon is the name given to the quantum of energy released when an electron goes from an outer orbital to a lower orbital in the atom. Photons are bosons, pure waves, the bearers of light. They have spin one characteristics and obeys certain laws. Electrons are fermions and have spin one-half characteristics and obey other laws.}

When the screening potential occurs, each atom produces a Coulomb wave in two dimensions as it resonates. The phenomenon of the screening potential, associated with a single atom, can also be observed when many single atoms are proximate to each other, but not nearest neighbors, i.e., the atoms must remain monoatomic, and their relation to each other must allow the two dimensional resonance to continue.

These arrangements, only possible with mono-atoms, are found uniquely in the transition group elements, which can remain stable and naturally in the monoatomic state. Mono-atoms of other elements, are unable to remain stable in the monoatomic state because they do not have "soft", and superdeformed nuclei, nor can they enter then, into the high spin state. Therefore, since there is not sufficient repulsion between atoms, they naturally aggregate and can only interact with each other in the three dimensions of the metal-metal bonded states, and will eventually grow into the cubic cluster size of thirty-three atoms or more. (See special case of copper below.)

When many single atoms are proximate to each other in the monoatomic state, the screening potentials of each atom will now respond to an external applied magnetic field by joining and producing a phenomenon which allows the formation of a special magnetic field called a "Meisner field". This field has been observed in atoms of metals by researchers at two and three degrees Kelvin, i.e., at extremely cold temperatures, but these atoms will always return to a normal metallic state once the temperature is raised. Until Hudson's work, the Meisner field has never been seen in atoms at room temperatures. It has been extremely expensive to produce these atoms in this superconductive state with existing technology, and therefore not commercially viable. (This phenomena can be utilized to levitate vehicles capable of transporting humans or heavy loads with a minimum of energy. This phenomenon accounts for rapid train systems world wide, but their energy savings in propelling the vehicle are offset by the refrigeration costs of cooling their superconductors.)

The Meisner field is a special magnetic field , that is unique. It has no North or South polarity. The magnitude of the Meisner field is determined by the amount of initially applied external magnetic field to the superconductor. Once activated, it acts as a protective barrier and resists any further entry of applied magnetic field into the sample. (When a sample absorbs a magnetic field, it can react paramagnetically, i.e., it will assume the identical magnetic qualities, or it can react ferromagnetically, i.e. it will orient itself to the magnetic field and return to its former state once the magnetic field is removed. With the Meisner field, the sample becomes perfectly diamagnetic, i.e., it will expel all magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, no longer absorbed, are forced to go around the sample, and the sample will be unaffected and keep its unique superconductive qualities.)

Instead of absorbing the external applied magnetic field, the atoms near the resonating mono-atom producing the Coulomb wave in two dimensions, will now "respond" to it by nestling in a resonance wave (at distances greater than four angstroms) and the wave will perpetuate, from one atom to the next, ad infinitum, creating more and more Cooper pairs or photons (flowing light) within the sample. The system of the many atoms actually has the same physics as that of a single atom.

What is unique about the transition group elements in this state is that the Meisner field, once created, will not cease its response even if the external magnetic field is withdrawn. Instead, the photons will continue to be created and the wave flow will continue to flow. Now the superconductor is apparently superconducting on its own.

To resume, the transition group elements with their superdeformed "soft" nuclei all resonating to a single frequency, in their high spin low energy state, becoming a wave flow of light in a resonant unified entity, are a resonance coupled system of quantum oscillators, harmonically coupled in two dimensions. Once the Meisner field is activated, the transition group elements are unique in that they become a "quantal wave". Energy now flows on a quantal wave perpetually.

This effect is believed by Andre Sacharov, Harold Putoff and others to be caused by a universal energy , called Zero Point Vacuum Energy ( Super Light, Ether, Tachyons). It is the natural free energy of the vacuum which is the stimulus, which acts as a natural applied external magnetic field, and makes it possible for these, and only these, natural perfect superconductors to respond as they do.

Indeed, these pure single element superconductors are extremely sensitive to external magnetic fields, and can respond to those of extremely low potential. A single element superconductor can respond to a magnetic field of 2 times 10 to the minus 15th (2–15) power ergs. (That is .0000000000000002 of 1 erg!) The earth's magnetic field is approximately 0.78 gauss. There are 10 to the 18th power (1018) ergs in a gauss. Therefore, these perfect superconductors will respond dramatically to the earth's magnetic field, as well as to fields surrounding the human body. (This is important to understand to explain their role in biological processes.)

We now have individual atoms running in perfect unison with each other producing a quantal wave upon which energy can flow as long as the atom can derive its energy from the vacuum. Therefore, it is no longer necessary for a manmade system to keep the flow alive, i.e., in a superconductive state.

 
Josephson's Junctions:

When two atoms or more are perfectly superconducting, they resonance-connect and expel external magnetic fields. However, there is a limit to a superconductor's capability to exclude external magnetic fields. This is referred to as HC 2. If that amount of magnetic field is applied to the sample, all resonance coupling collapses. This phenomenon is utilized as an electronic switch, called a Josephson Junction.

Applying sufficient external magnetic field will stop the flow of energy in the superconducting system and switch it off. Releasing the external magnetic field will turn the switch is on. Being able to use Josephson's Junctions for superconductive devices at room temperature will be extremely valuable.

 
DC Arc Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Analysis of Metals

When analyzing these transition group elements in the monoatomic high spin state by standard spectroscopic analysis (which is based on reading the characteristic emission or absorption of the energy caused by knocking the electrons from one location to another in the atom), the analysis becomes impossible because the atom no longer has individual electrons, only Cooper pairs. The electrons have paired to become photons and no longer exist in "space-time" or at any specific location as particles; they are waves of light. Therefore, the monoatomic elements remain "hidden".

When analyzing the atoms in these elements in the monoatomic high spin state by X-ray spectroscopy, they still can not be seen, even if they are aggregated by taking them to a low spin state and forming metal-metal bonds. The dimensions between the atoms range from 1.8 to 2.2 angstroms. To be seen by X-ray, their overall dimensions must be fifteen angstroms or larger to match the fifteen angstrom wave length of the ray, so that the ray can strike the particle twice for it to be seen. This would take approximately thirty atom clusters in three dimensions. Mono-atoms are, therefore, X-ray amorphous.

In order to identify the transition group elements in the sample, Hudson prepared the sample into a metal-metal bonded state, just sufficiently "metallic" to be read by the Russian system of spectroscopy developed at the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Standard spectroscopy requires a more fully metallic state in three dimensions before the elements will read.

 
David Hudson's Discoveries

David Hudson discovered that the monoatomic state can exist naturally and remain in a stable state in the transitional group elements. (ORME) He also discovered that in this state, the atoms can join to become a many atom resonance coupled system of quantum oscillators, resonating in two dimensions, indeed perfect superconductors, at room temperature. (S-ORME)

Hudson discovered that the precious elements, in the group of transitional elements, could be found in a monoatomic form in certain ores and that by a chemical method, he could separate them out from these ores. The high spin low energy state is stable and naturally maintained. it needs no external manmade manipulation. The internal temperature of the atom is measured to be almost zero degrees Kelvin .(approximately three degrees). This is a naturally cold state. It is, in fact, a perfect superconductor.

Hudson also discovered that he could prepare these mono-atoms from commercial metallic forms of the transitional group elements as well, and maintain them in this state by removing the chemical and crystalline energy. This is achieved by providing another element that is highly reactive and which has a chemical affinity for the transition element. When they react, they form a compound of the two elements. Through a process of replacement chemistry, hydrogen is exchanged for the reactive metal. The hydrogen transition metal compound is chemically removed from the solution and the hydrogen is thermally annealed from the sample. It is inherent in these precious elements to convert to the high spin state if this particular sequence is followed. This process is permanent and does not have to be continuously applied. It is also infinitely less expensive than the traditional refrigeration process.

Hudson's material can be considered as literally billions of atomic Josephson Junctions. Hudson's discovery provides superconductivity at room temperature and is extremely valuable in all electronic and power applications.

{Note: Hudson's explanation for the unexplained energy released in cold fusion studies is that the palladium electrode is converting to the high spin state over a period of several days using lithium deuterate, (provided by the experimenter) as an electrolyte which enables the breaking of the metal-metal bonds of the atoms into the monoatomic superdeformed high spin state.}

 
Gamma Emission

In Hudson's early research, before he realized the value of the monoatomic high spin state, he attempted to force mono-atoms to the low spin state by the application of extremely high energy in order to make metal out of the mono-atoms. Using an arc furnace (a water cooled copper crucible with a tungsten electrode mounted above it and all atmosphere controlled) and an argon gas as the plasma gas, Hudson struck an arc on the sample and within one second, totally destroyed the tungsten electrode.

Estimations of the heat (BTUs) being generated far exceeded any chemical energy possible. Hudson was sufficiently concerned that since 1982 he has not attempted to reproduce the procedure. He suspected a nuclear level energy release to be causing the phenomena.

In 1991, Hudson found an article in Scientific American in which Berkeley Brookhaven had observed that superdeformed high spin atoms, when subjected to external magnetic fields sufficient to affect the nuclear quadripole moment, would cause the nucleus to emit gamma radiation without fissioning. The research physicists doing the testing at Berkeley Brookhaven was amazed at their findings. They had indeed confirmed Hudson's suspicions about his material.

Without the use of linear accelerators, nuclear level gamma emission can be induced to emit from the ORMEs in Hudson’s material with the simple application of a DC arc. This discovery has tremendous energy production capabilities.

 
Biological Effects

When Hudson became aware that the precious elements in this superdeformed high spin state could not be analyzed by standard instrumental analysis, he realized that they could exist everywhere undetected. There are many published papers where superconductivity has been observed in biological systems. However, no-one has yet understood where the superconductivity is originating.

Using the Russian system of spectroscopy, analyzed pigs' and calves’ brains and discovered that an excess of five percent by dry matter weight of the tissue was rhodium and iridium in the high spin state. Hudson suspects that the human body also contains quantities of these elements in the monoatomic state.

Nitric oxide is a compound that dramatically pins these elements (causes the high spin atoms to go to the low spin state). The air contains normally about one percent nitric oxide. Every breath of air provides nitric oxide which "kills" the high spin state of these atoms in the body. In performing this chemistry, nitric oxide causes the screening potential of these atoms to withdraw and removes one of the Cooper paired electrons which comes under the control of the nitrogen atom.

When this occurs, the electron is annihilated along with one of the nitrogen electrons, and produces a one million electron volt photon (gamma level radiation), which is absorbed by the nucleus of the nitrogen atom.

This has a sufficient level of energy to remove the positive charge from a proton of nitrogen. The excess neutron now causes the nitrogen atom to become a carbon atom with 14 nucleons, i.e., with this an extra neutron to become radioactive carbon 14. Hudson believes this is the reason that radioactive carbon 14 is continually being created in all living creatures. (radioactive carbon dating is the Standard method of dating the age of past living system)

In as much as we can not remove nitric oxide from the air, the detrimental effects can be offset by adding more of these precious elements in the superdeformed high spin state to our diet.

Recently there have been articles in the medical literature indicating the emerging value of precious metal salts for anti-tumor activity. However, the researchers are unaware of the reason the beneficial effect. Hudson believes it is due to the change in the physical condition of the salts that occurs in the aqueous saline solutions in the body. If the cluster of atoms in the salts is sufficiently small, they can dissolve to the monoatomic state.

Hudson believes that these elements in their monoatomic state correct DNA and are, in fact, the "light of life". His research into this use of monoatomic rhodium and iridium is ongoing. To date, they are showing to have enormously beneficial results with terminal Aids and cancer patients.

 
Note on Copper

Copper is used today in Type II superconductors, in the form of yttrium barium copper oxide. It is indeed a high temperature superconductor, but in order to maintain its monoatomic state at room temperature, it needs the matrix of yttrium, barium and oxide to keep its atoms at the requisite distance from each other and to function in two dimensions. Other wise it will form metal-metal bonds, become increasingly metallic and lose its superconductive behavior.

 
Also see ...  
"Understanding Colloidal Suspensions"

m-state (ORMUS) materials dissolved in water.

 
 
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David Hudson's   " Grand Science Adventure "
"David Hudson at the Ranch" — November 16, 1995


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