— Electrical "Glue" —


The Electric Force is a tension in the very fabric of the universe.


James Clerk Maxwell first formulated his formulas in 1873. These formulas provided a mathematical foundation for relating observed electric and magnetic effects.

Maxwell's intutive sense for the natural order in the world, lead him to the idea that a changing electric field gives rise to an associated magnetic field.

The "field" concept trys to associate something that happens at one point with what happens at another point even though there may be no material objects connecting those points.

Ampere's law says that a magnetic field with apparent rotation is present around a small region when either an electric current or a changing electric field is present in that region. This is one of Maxwell's equations.

Faraday showed that the work per unit charge, called the electromotive force in a coil of wire was related to the time- rate of change of the magnetic flux enclosed by the coil.

Lenz's law says that a voltage and hence a current will be induced in a direction in such a way to produce a magnetic field that tends to oppose the change in flux. The opposition is not complete since the induced current dies away rapidly due to the resistance once the driving flux is held stable.

One of Maxwell's equations says that a changing magnetic field is associated with an electric field whose apparent rotation about a point is proportional to the time-rate of change of the magnetic field. Since the curl is not zero, an electric field associated with a changing magnetic field is therefore not conservative.

Gauss' law plus Faraday's law gives a complete picture of an electric field. It has a divergence due to electric charge at a point and it has curl due to changing magnetic field at a point. If there is no charge there is no diverence; if there is no change in the magnetic field, there is no curl.

From the perspective of the coil, the physical effects on "q" are the same, implying that electric force and magnetic force are really manifestations of the same underlying phenomenon. (that is an essential fact of "electromatic theory that led to Einstein's theory of relativity.)

Faraday's law relates an electric field to a changing magnetic field. Ampere's law relates a magnetic field to a changing electric field. A changing electric field is accompanied by a changing magnetic field and vice versa. The four Maxwell equations give a complete picture of the electric and magnetic fields.

 

The Earth has an Electric Field Around It

The positive electric Field surrounding the Earth
 
Click for more information
 
This picture of the earth, taken from the moon, with a special UV camera, shows ...

A positive electric field surrounding the planet, that has regions of charge greater than 350,000 volts.

The dark side of the planet is to the right.

Click on picture to learn more.


 
 
While pondering the next arrangement of the coils to test, the urge came over me to page through Tesla's patents.

After again reviewing Tesla's patent for an "Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy" ( The Wardenclyfee Design ) my eye was drawn to this patent.

Nikola Tesla's patent   #787,412   — issued April 18, 1905  — filed May 16, 1900


"Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy through the Natural Mediums."

Here are some important extracts from the patent.

Transmitter: — "the total length of the conductor from the ground plate to the elevated terminal { including coil(s) } should be equal to wavelength or else equal to that length multiplied by an odd number."

Velocity: — Travels "over the Earth's surface with a mean velocity of about 471,240 Kilometers per second." ( 1 kilometer = .62137 miles = 292,814.3 miles per second vs. 186,272 = 1.57 times )

"the planet behaves like a perfectly smooth or polished conductor of inappreciable resistance with capacity and self induction uniformly distributed along the axis of symmetry of wave propagation and transmitting slow electrical oscillations without sensible distortion and attenuation." ( in other words, an "ideal medium", analogous to photon velocity in a vacuum? )

Receiver: — "the strongest effect being of course obtained when the plates are at a distance equal to wavelength."

Goals: — One of the goals of this patent's device is to create standing waves of electrical potential while performing its function without a significant production of Hertzian or electromagnetic waves.


Metal Conductivity

Two LSU physics rearchers are reporting what they say is a significant discovery about electrical conductivity of metals.

The work by professor Philip W. Adams and postdoctoral researcher Vladimir Y. Butko of the LSU Department of Physics and Astronomy is reported in the Jan. 11, 2001 issue of Nature magazine.

The pair have been working to find out why metals stop being good conductors of electricity after reaching a certain thinness.

Adams said many scientists have been trying to research this question by vaporizing metals and allowing the vapors to settle on other surfaces as a thin film. Then, they try to test the film for conductivity.

However, Adams said, studies have been problematic because the vapors of most metals fall in droplets, creating a film that is granular, making testing difficult and inaccurate.

But Adams and Butko found that vaporized beryllium makes a smooth film that is perfect for testing the effects of thinness.

The researchers said that when a magnetic field was applied, the metal film always found its way back to the same resistance. THey believe that all metals react the same way and that this behavior was never previously observed because the granular films of other metals were so difficult to test.

The key to this theory is that beryllium is not even magnetic, so the fact that a magnetic field would so drastically change the conductivity of that metal is a great suprise.

Adams said the discovery is significant because it shows that there is a universal standard for limiting a metal film's resistance to conductivity and that the standard is based on the behavior of electrons in metals when exposed to magnetic fields.


Sir William Crookes had seen within the action space of his now famed high vacuum tube — There, suspended over the cathode, was a black space which was actually radiant. THe radiance extended beyond the tube walls in certain special instances. Sir William had no difficulty accepting the fact that this was a "space–permeating" blackness, a radiance having far greater significance than a mere physical phenomenon. ... (p257)

Electrogravitic Phenomenon.

George Piggot mentioned the mysterious "black bands" which appeard around his highly charged suspended metal marbles. Light seemed to disappear into these zones.

It was Nikola Tesla whose forgotten and ignored testimony on the perceptual effects of high voltage electrical systems, who made the most observations. Tesla produced such intense electrical arcs that the same "blackout effects" were repeatedly observed. In the case of Tesla's famed Colorado Springs Experiments, the blackout effect produced a lingering state which Tesla described as a perceptual-spatial distortion.

Noted in his published diary, the results followed the intense activity of his Magnifying Transformer. Visual distortions, clarifications, black shadows, black streamers, black waves, lingered for hours all around his plateau labroratory, whereby he stated that:

"These phenomenon are so striking that they cannot be satisfactorily explain by any plausible hypothesis, and I am led to believe that possibly the strong electrification of the air, which is often noted to an extraordinary degree, may be more or less responsible for their occurrence."

Invis (p265)

(p259)


Gravity - Magnetic - Inertia

Understanding Colloidal Suspensions
Electricity at work in fluids

Electrical Effects in "Semiconductor Materials, Junctions, and Devices"

Tommy's History of Electricity

The Resonate Coil Project

The Electrical Patterns of Life
The Work of Dr. Harold Saxton Burr

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