Hafnium Carbide Crystals, Grown at 
the University of NM, in Dr. Milewski's Lab 
 
Photo by Tommy Cichanowski,
 
Using an electron microscope.

The Wonderful World of

Advanced Materials

( Making Things,  by Assembling  One Atom  At  A Time. )

We need all, acknowledge our Masters and Teachers.
— Tommy C. —

If You Can Imagine a "Lawful Material", We Can Make It For You !!!

Special Properties of the Transition Group Elements


Dr. John V. Milewski, Professional Engineer

( Father of the "Rice Hull Process". )
 
Dr. John V. Milewski, Professional Engineer Dr. John V. Milewski is an Internationally recognized leader and consultant in his field of Advanced Materials. He is a professional engineer, scientist, inventor, entrepreneur, writer, publisher, editor and lecturer. He is a retired staff member of Los Alamos National Labs and has worked previously as a scientific staff member at Exxon Research Center and at Thiokol Chemical Rocket Engine Div. He recently founded his own research company called Superkinetic, Inc. where he is currently working on a revolutionary new electric light bulb based on using a single crystal fiber as a filament.

He is a graduate of the University of Notre Dame in Chemical Engineering (1951, Stevens Institute of Technology with an MS in Metallurgy (1959), and has his Ph.D. in Ceramic Engineering from Rutgers University (1873). Dr. Milewski holds 30 patents and has over 42 publications and has edited 4 books in his field.

In this write up Dr. Milewski will present information about his crystal growing business and his revolutionary unified field theory on SuperLight energy and he hopes to tie these two together to bring about cheap, clean energy and healing and regeneration.

In March 2000 Dr. John V. Milewski along with his son Dr. Peter D. Milewski were honored to have their crystal filament light bulb invention Patent # 4,864,186 put on permanent exhibit at the Smithsonian American History Museum. This is part of a new exhibit titled "Lighting a Revolution" honoring the six most significant ideas in lighting field from 1950 to 2000.


Ver: 3 Revised November 17, 1996
© 1993 by John V. Milewski, Ph.D.

S U P E R L I G H T

ONE SOURCE, ONE FORCE

June 3, 1993

Revised November 17,1995

© Copyright 1993,   by John V. Milewski, Ph.D.

 

— Preface —

 
Dr. Milewski's experiment preparation station 

for Growing Hafnium Carbide Whisker Crystals 

and Silicon Carbide Whisker Crystals.
 
I have a lab in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where I grow crystals. They are called "Whiskers", (Whisker Crystals) a technical slang word for Single Crystal Fibers.

These are the strongest, and most perfect materials in the World !
They are 10 times stronger than piano wire, fiberglass and carbon or boron, the aerospace materials. I will describe how I grow these crystals and what I am doing in the lab a little further into this paper and how this technology will fit into converting the energy of SuperLight into useful energy source for every day.

This paper is in five parts.

  • The first part is a general summary.
  • The second discusses my crystal growth at my Laboratory.
  • The third describes my understanding of SuperLight.
  • The fourth will relate to how this new theory of SuperLight will change our thinking of physics, astronomy and the metaphysical and biological forces in our body.
  • The fifth part will describe my hopes and speculation of the future as we begin to harness and work with this pervasive SuperLight force to bring about cheap, clean energy to the world and new healing and regeneration to ourselves.

Introduction

Dr. John Milewski with Hafnium Carbide Crystal oven 
in the background. This paper will be both scientific and metaphysical. For those of you that are not scientifically oriented, please bear with me when I get a little scientific, and I will try to keep it short and simple, but some education in this area is needed for a better understanding. I personally believe that all truth is one and it is basically simple, so don't be afraid of a little science. It helps you understand this life experience we are all in. I believe that to understand ourselves, life and the Universe, it should be and will be found to be simple, in fact, that is what this paper is all about. One Source, One Force that is responsible for all physical forces and all metaphysical forces and even life itself. You don't have to be an Einstein or a 12 dimensional mathematician to be able to understand what I am going to share with you.

John's Cadmium Fiber oven at the Advanced Material Lab. In the past science has been prostituted to do the bidding of politics and greedy business people. This is what got us in to our present environmental and health problems.

As Plutinus said in the 4th century AD, "We are the caretakers of the Universe," therefore the Universe and Life must be simple and easy to understand. It is. There is only One Source and One Force that controls everything and that is Light. I hope I will be successful in explaining this to you.

MY LAB IN ALBUQUERQUE NEW MEXICO

Since 1963 I have been growing single crystal fibers called "whiskers". My first company was called Thermokenetic Fibers (1963-68), the World's first commercial source of whisker material. What are whiskers? They are high purity single crystals grown in or on one axis so that they form a fiber material. We grow these by what is known as the VLS process, which stands for Vapor, Liquid, and Solid. When frost forms on your window, it is a vapor–solid crystal growth process. When ice forms in a pond, it is a liquid–solid crystal growth process. Our process is different from these two.

Silicon Carbide Whisker 
Crystals By changing the chemistry of the feed gas, and catalyst, fiber-crystals of almost any kind of material can be grown. Metals such as iron, gold, silver, cadmium and ceramics such as SiC, Si3N4, sapphire, boron carbide, graphite have been grown as crystal-fibers or whiskers as known in the trade. The literature gives over 60 different elements or compounds that have been grown as whiskers.

What are whiskers?   They are high purity single crystals grown in or on one axis so they form a fiber material. We grow these by what is known as the V.L.S. process which stands for Vapor, Liquid, Solid. When frost forms on your windows, it is a vapor–solid crystal growth process. When ice forms in a pond, it is a liquid solid crystal growth process. Our process is different than these two.

Silicon Carbide Whisker Crystal

In our process, the feed material is a vapor, in gaseous form, a liquid is the catalyst, and the final crystal being grown is the solid. For example, when we are growing silicon carbide the vapor feed contains a carbon bearing gas methane (basically natural gas) and silicon bearing gas, silicon monoxide. The catalyst is a metal material like iron alloys or stainless steel in a fine powdered form. At high temperature e.g. 1400°C – 2561°F, the metal catalyst melts and dissolves some of the carbon and silicon from the gas stream.

Control unit and furnace for 
growing V.L.S. Whisker Crystals.
Built mostly from recycled parts by Tommy Cichanowski. Soon the liquid metal reaches saturation of silicon and carbon in solution and begins to precipitate out SiC crystals against the substrate. As the crystal grows, it lifts the liquid catalyst up and a fiber crystal is formed. A longer time in the furnace produces a longer fiber. The diameter of the catalyst controls the diameter of the fiber. Fine metal catalyst powders produce fine fibers and larger diameter catalyst produce larger diameter fibers or rod–like crystals.

High Temperature Furnace inlet - for growing V.L.S. Whisker Crystals. Currently, I am working on a DOE contract to produce hafnium carbide filaments for the development of a new light bulb that will last longer, give more natural spectrum of light and be more energy efficient. Later in this paper, I will describe how this work of making single crystal fibers available, will tie into the capture or harnessing of SuperLight.


John sent me a 5+ hour videotape of a lecture by David Hudson. The note on the tape said,   "Tommy — STUDY the Part on Superconductivity. It is VERY GOOD !!!"

Well, I did my home work, and here is my report.

"David Hudson At The Ranch" — Stealth Atoms In Our Environment
Tommy's report on superconductivity and Cooper Pairs


WHAT IS SUPERLIGHT ?

SuperLight is magnetic light; it is magneto–electric radiation.

Regular light is electric light or electro–magnetic radiation. There is parity or symmetry the Universe, everything has an equal and opposite mirror–image counterpart, the Ying and the Yang, right and left, matter and anti matter, the electron and the positron. Why not light?

Both science and metaphysics have honored this parity law in all things except light. They are wrong.   There is parity in light as well !

I will now explain and give you more detail.

SuperLight is the unseen force in nature that has been ignored by science but real to the mystics and metaphysicians for thousands of years. It has been given different names by different cultures for thousands of years.

A Nuous, Chi, Biomagnetic Energy, Wilhelm Reich's Orgone Energy, Tesler's Free Earth Energy, Animal Magnetism, Space Energy, Vacuum Energy, and Zero Point Energy, etc. Those who have subtle perception know it is real.

SuperLight was identified scientifically over 100 years ago when James Clerk Maxwell solved his famous wave equation. This occurred shortly after radio was invented by Nikola Tesla, and theoretical physicists tried to find a mathematical model to explain radio waves. When using positive numbers in Maxwell's Equations this explains radio waves and also all forms of electro–magnetic radiation such as light, radio, TV, microwaves, x–rays, etc. What his equation also explains 100 years ago was SuperLight but because it was the solution that comes from the use of negative numbers, "this second solution" was ignored for over 100 years. Remember when you were taught algebra and were told to ignore imaginary numbers (e.g. The square root of –1) because they have no meaning in this world. Well, times have changed and now we have a very valid second solution to Maxwell's equation and it is SuperLight.

In the mid 70's a scientist, Dr. William Tiller, at Stanford University took another look at Maxwell's equation and asked; "What does this second solution explain when interpreted in our world."{1}

To understand this second solution, we must first review what the first or positive solution explains. The first solution is as follows: Radio waves leave the antenna and radiate out into space from a point source (the antenna) equally in all directions into space toward infinity traveling at the speed of light. The wave is composed of a large electrical component and a small magnetic component 90 degrees to the electrical component. Thus named, electro–magnetic radiation.

The second solution describes a particle wave of just the opposite structure. It explains that from infinity traveling toward the point source from all directions radiates SuperLight. This new radiation is composed of a large magnetic component and a small electrical component, thus the name, magneto–electric radiation. When the equations are looked at more closely, one finds that "SuperLight" travels at the speed of light squared !   1020 meters per second,   or 10 billion times faster than light.

It has a frequency 10 billion times higher, and has a corresponding, shorter wavelength.   It therefore has a higher energy density.

The question one asks immediately is, "if it is so powerful, how come we do not feel it, or how come it is not detected scientifically?"   Well, the frequency is so high, its wave length so short, (4 x 10–8 nano–meters, or 4 x 10–17 meters), its velocity so fast, that it goes through everything as though the substance was nearly completely transparent (like glass).

We can say the higher frequency is completely penetrating like x–rays, but even more so. More information, regarding the relative size, will be given later.

WHERE DOES SUPERLIGHT COME FROM ?

It comes out of black holes !

First, I will describe how regular light is formed and then make the analogy for SuperLight.

Regular electro–magnetic radiation or light is formed when electric monopoles give off energy. The electron in orbit about our atoms is an electric monopole — as it changes its' orbit it either gives off or absorbs energy in the form of electro– magnetic radiation. Sunlight is converted into electricity by this process in a solar cell. Just the opposite occurs in optical diodes, which convert electricity into light.

So, electro magnetic radiation or visible light is produced when an electron (an electric monopole) lowers its orbit and releases its energy in the form of light.

Now, I believe a similar event occurs in the extremely dense and hot matter found in black holes. It is theorized that black holes contain magnetic monopoles and when these extremely dense, extremely small, extremely energetic magnetic monopoles release energy by lowering their orbit they radiate magneto–electric radiation, our SuperLight. So black holes really are not so black. They are radiant beings of SuperLight. Of course SuperLight escapes the strong gravitation forces of the black holes because its velocity is the square of the velocity of light and it therefore, can easily escape.{7}

The current scientific thinking is that in the center of every galaxy in the universe is a black hole. There are billions and billions of galaxies all around us, and they all are producing SuperLight. We are literally bathed in a three-dimensional dynamic energy field, or an "Ether" of SuperLight — a Dynamic Ether.

SUPERLIGHT and LIFE

I believe that SuperLight is the prime activating energy in the universe and accounts for the production of what we call life. I believe SuperLight interacts with special forms of matter in our bodies and produces what we call Vital Life Forces. These special forms of matter are found in bones, micro–crystals and also in the various fluids in the body, that contain cell salts. There are also, believed to be organic molecules in some body fluids, that are believed to be liquid crystalline in structure. These change state (liquid to crystal) very readily, with a extremely small change in energy (e.g. emotions).

Another form of organized structure found in the body, are the multitude of long parallel conductive protein structures, that form phase arrays like structures{5}. Like the phased array radio telescope in Socorro, New Mexico, they pick up extreme weak signals and amplify them, by being in phase. It is also suggested, that these proteins may have room temperature superconductivity. It is these organized structures in living things, that produce a coherence that has resonance with very minute amounts of SuperLight. Most of it passes through matter, between the nucleus and electron, without even coming in contact with them.

Our body is electronic in nature{2-5} and it is composed of millions and billions of micro–electronic units that are formed in structures that have a phase array organization{3}. I believe that the electronic resonance in these organized conductive molecules, have some resonance with very small amounts of SuperLight and that these energy fields and currents are responsible for the human aura and the energy vortexes found in the body chakra area. They also produce the Vital Life Forces. But, since SuperLight is so powerful, even a very, very small amount produces more than enough energy to sustain life. Thus, life is produced and sustained by specific forms and amounts of organized matter, and old age and eventual death occurs when too much disorder and disease comes into our bodies and breaks up this ordered structure. At that point, the body can no longer produce enough Vital Life Force from SuperLight to sustain itself. I also believe that all forms of organized matter produce its own aura–finger–prints or energy signature when it reacts with SuperLight.

There are many sensitive people, who can detect and read the aura of living entities and substances. Our body can determine whether this energy is good or bad for itself. I believe that this accounts for Kineseology and also explains how herbs work on the body. For example, each herb has an energy field signature that has a special attunement to specific body parts and its presence helps "kick off" or reactivate that energy center which may be slow or stopped, because of some illness or disease. Therefore, SuperLight to the rescue, through the herb structure that is appropriate to that area of the body in need.

Crystals to the rescue also. Crystals are very organized structures and thus according to this thesis are also converters or transducers of SuperLight. This is where their energy comes from and explains how they seemingly can radiate a positive signal continuously without being recharged. As with herbs, crystals and minerals of different chemistries and structures, develop different types of energy fields. This explains why different crystals have different effects on different parts of the body. The key to crystal healing is to match the required energy with the proper crystal that produces that specific energy need.

As scientists and experimenters become more aware of SuperLight and start to understand it, experiments and instruments will be designed to attune to these energies. In the future, I conceive of manufacturing simulated body structures{4} which will be micro–size phase array assemblies made of room temperature superconductors. They will be converters SuperLight into Vital Life Force for healing. Specific micro–structures will be designed to attune to, and resonate with, the exact energy needed, in the specific part of the body that needs an energy boost for healing and regeneration.

It is said, that the priests in Atlantis lived for thousands of years, and that their secret was that they, at times, would sleep in crystal lined caves and that this would rejuvenate their bodies, bringing healing and new growth.

I propose that, in the very near future, I will be able to test this idea with the fiber crystal that I am making in my lab in Albuquerque. Soon, I hope to be able to grow my fiber crystals long enough, and in large enough quantities, that we will be able to spin these crystals into yarn. Once spun into yarn, single crystal fiber cloth could be woven to make crystal cloth head and wristbands, hats, and meditation shawls. You could even stuff your mattress with crystal fiber, or cover your bedroom wall with crystal fiber cloth wallpaper. This should stimulate creativity, imagination, healing and regeneration.

Now this next idea may sound way out, but, I believe that it will be possible to make room temperature superconductors of crystal fiber. If this becomes possible, we are talking about levitation, and possibly even a magic carpet.

So, the door is wide open with the possibilities of working with SuperLight energies, through the use of single crystal fibers. I believe these need to be high purity crystal fibers, in order to have the coherence necessary to resonate with SuperLight.

SUPERLIGHT AND GRAVITY

Gravity is not an intrinsic property of matter, neither is inertia. These secondary forces are both formed by the reaction of matter to the dynamic field of SuperLight. Gravity is not an attraction! It is the result of a universal pressure, exerted by SuperLight as it rains in from infinity, from all directions, onto every object.   Materials are not 100% transparent to SuperLight. I estimate, perhaps about 99.99999999% transparent. As a consequence, all material domains, all "matter", experiences an acceleration caused by SuperLight. Every "particle" is affected by a slight drag, or pressure differential, as SuperLight travels past and through them.

Quantum Particle Interactions, come into play as SuperLight joins in, or exits the activities of the particle domain. Field effects come into play, as the SuperLight Entity travels through the Atomic Atmosphere producing drag. Drag turbulence and particle pressures combine to produce the accelerational force we know as gravity.

This acceleration is of little consequence when a single object is in space, at a very great distance from other objects, since the force vectors cancel out. However, when a second object comes close to the first object, then, the two objects shield each other from the full power of SuperLight pressure on the opposite sides of the objects facing each other. As a result of this, the objects experience a net accelerational force toward each other, which is directly proportional to their mass. Mass that produces the mutual shielding that each object experiences. Thus, falsely, each object is said to be attracted to each other !   In reality, they are being pushed together by the net differential force of SuperLight pressure which results from the slight absorption of SuperLight as it passes through these objects. This, according to my theory, is what creates gravity. It is a push exerted by SuperLight, on objects shielding each other, from a portion of the SuperLight radiation.

Gravity then becomes the "Weak Force", from the effects of porous matter. An atom of matter is about 1018 parts void for each part of solid matter. The wavelength of SuperLight is much smaller than the typical atomic dimension. Thus, most of SuperLight passes through the atomic structure unopposed. However, when SuperLight contacts the nucleus or electrons it produces the force that holds the electrons in orbit, and the nucleus together. It is the nuclear glue. This gives matter its chemical properties. Thus, gravity is the weak force since only a very small amount of SuperLight interacts with matter on the atomic scale. An example that will give you some idea as to how porous solid matter is, as follows: Let us expand the nucleus of an atom to the size of a golf ball, then the electrons in orbit about this nucleus would be about the size of a pea. Now when this pea makes its orbit about the golf ball its orbit is not a few feet or even a few yards in diameter, its orbit is about 2 miles in diameter. Matter is mostly composed of void or space and the energy rays of SuperLight, whose wavelength is many times smaller than the diameter of the electron, will to a large extent miss the particle regions, as it rains through the atomic region. Only a small amount of SuperLight interacts with the nucleus and electrons while the majority will pass right through the region.

NUCLEAR FORCE

The structure of the nucleus is extremely dense, when compared to that of the atom as a whole. The particles of matter in the nucleus are much closer to each other, than those in the electron. The nucleus is probably in the order of 1028 more dense. Thus, the force that holds the nucleus together, must be very strong.

In reality, it is still the effects of SuperLight pushing and interacting, that holds the components of nucleus together. These stronger interactions on the nucleus, are a result of its increased relative density and ability to shield SuperLight. It is the density and geometry of matter that changes the forces we see. Thus, from One Source, comes the One Force, that divides and manifests itself in so many interesting ways.

The relative packing symmetry is very critical in the nucleus and this accounts for the relative stability of various nuclei. A less symmetrical structure, results in radioactivity and an unstable nucleus. In this way, SuperLight helps to explain radioactivity.

SUPERLIGHT IS THE SINGULARITY

(The University Field or Energy Source)

Einstein spent the last half of his life in search of a unifying field theory that would unite all forces into one. I believe that with SuperLight, a theory can be developed to explain this idea. SuperLight; one force, once source. The concept I've developed is new, and all aspects have not yet been considered, but what has been covered appears to fit quite well with our current understanding of reality.

I propose that SuperLight energy is the singularity or universal energy force in all nature and that its interaction with various forms of matter and energy produce all other forces in the Universe. Specific atomic structures and sub-atomic structures are resonant to and interact with some aspects of SuperLight as it passes through them and our bodies. The energy that is absorbed is converted into the electrical, magnetic, nuclear and gravitational forces producing our vital life force. This can explain all the forces of nature and life energies.

It is the geometry and density of matter that explains the different forms and intensity of the forces that are produced.

FUTURE ENERGY SOURCE

As greater understanding of what types of devices can attune to SuperLight, I believe that it will be possible to capture this energy, collect it, and measure it. At first only small assemblies will be made for healing and regeneration, (only small amounts are needed) scientific analysis, proof of principle and localized experiments. In the future, I envision massive devices to be used as direct energy converters. This development will have a significant effect on reducing world pollution associated with most other energy producing systems such as nuclear and fossil fuels.


SUMMARY

There is parity in the universe, therefore light has two forms:
    ELECRTO–MAGNETIC — electric light traveling at C.   (1010 meters per sec.)

    MAGNETO–ELECTRIC — magnetic light traveling at C squared.

These lights are responsible for all created matter, all forces, and life itself. As a result of this theory , I make the following statements;

LIFE HEALING AND SPIRITUALITY

    1. Vital life force energies come from SuperLight reacting with coherent structures in the body.

    2. Organs and chakras produce energy vortexes from the interaction with SuperLight.

    3. Aging comes from loss of coherence in the body.

    4. Healing and regeneration will be possible, by exposure to higher concentrations of SuperLight.

    5.All psychic phenomena takes place on the SuperLight wave bands.

Super Light as it Affects Physics and Astronomy

    1. It proposes a three dimensional dynamic ether that reacts with all matter and energy causing all forces.

    2. Gravity is not and intrinsic property of matter, but only a reaction to an external force. (e.g. SuperLight)

    3. Inertia is not an intrinsic property of matter, but only it's reaction to acceleration through the ether of SuperLight's dynamic field.

    4. It eliminates the problem of action at a distance.

    5. It eliminates the need for dark matter, and solves Dr. Rubins problem of the outer stars in galaxies "traveling too fast". (There is a slight drag causing the stars to fall slowly into the center of the galaxy.)

    6. Also, the gravity constant is not constant, but becomes less as one approaches black holes, due to the reduction effect of SuperLight radiating out of the black hole.

    7. This also means that the gravity constant becomes significantly less at the edge of the Universe.

    8. It also allows black holes to reach an equilibrium state, — matter in SuperLight out — thus preventing one black hole from becoming massive and gobbling up the whole universe.

    9. It explains what neutrinos are: they are SuperLight.

    10. It allows many new scenarios for the Big Bang and creation. For example: Since gravity and inertia are the result of matter reacting with SuperLight, which did not exist prior to the big bang, or in early times, then, the Big Bang could have been a Little Bang (or a big breath)because any force would cause and infinite acceleration, since there was nothing to hold matter back.

SuperLight And Space Travel

Communication, on the SuperLight wave bands, will permit extreme distant communication in space in much shorter times. (e.g. 100,000 light years in 3 to 4 minutes.)

It eliminates the need to take fuel, when you travel in space, thus permitting real deep space travel.


 
Harnessing SuperLight Will Give Us An
Infinite Supply of Non-Polluting Energy
 
 


REFERENCES

    1. Carlton, J.B. & Tiller, WA. Index of Refraction Measurements for Superluminal Radiation;
    9th Annual Medical Symposium Jan. 1976 ARE Clinic, Phoenix, AZ

    2. Milewski, J.V. "The Crystal Sourcebook";
    Preference & Introduction, Mystic Crystal Publications, Albq, NM

    3. & 4. Bulkley, D.H., An Electromagnetic Theory of Life;
    Seattle Inst., Seattle, WA 94115

    5. "The Body Electric", R. Becker MD, & G. Seldon;
    Wm Morrow & Co., NY 1985


Advanced Ceramics,   SINGLE CRYSTAL Fibers

SUPERKINETIC, INC.

John V. Milewski, Ph.D., PE
President

2881 Tramway Pl. NE,   Albuquerque, NM   87122
Office & Fax   505–856–6259
jvmilewski@aol.com

Dr. Milewski is writing a more comprehensive presentation on this subject. If you are interested in knowing more, E-mail John.   It will help speed things along.

ORMUS Atoms Exist As A Gas
by John V. Milewski

How David Hudson Discovered Mon-Atomic (ORMUS) Atoms

Top of Page


NEW SCIENTIST WEEKLY NEWSLETTER

 
FANTASTIC FILM

If you live in Florida, Washington state or Long Island you may have other things on your mind at the moment. In general, however, people are still concerned about the size of their tomatoes, the quality of their photographs and the fuel–efficiency of their cars. Now a company in Minnesota has produced a polymer film which is slightly thicker than food wrap, blocks infrared light and promises to tackle all these problems in one go.
http://www.newscientist.com/nl/1007/juicy.html

 
FABULOUS FOAM

As excitement mounts in Minnesota over a multi-purpose film, hopes are high in Ohio for a tough new foam. At the US Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Kristen Kearns has developed what could be one of the super materials of the 21st century, and it's 90 per cent air. Kearns's new foam could replace the glass fiber and aluminum honeycomb in aero planes and spacecraft and has a "unique combination of properties" which could "save millions of dollars".
http://www.newscientist.com/nl/1007/space.html

 
A GIRL'S BEST FRIEND

It may look like a humble wine bottle, but it has certainly put some sparkle into the business of cutting air pollution. The new microwave emissions converter will eliminate 70 per cent of the harmful emissions coming from your car's engine and turn your exhaust pipe into a diamond mine.
http://www.newscientist.com/nl/1007/little.html

 
COOL COLOURS, MAN

Paint that cools your home in the heat of summer and warms it in winter has been developed by researchers in China. Not only will the paint reduce your heating bills, it will also change the color of your home to match the season. Developed by Yiping Ma and his colleagues at Tongji University in Shanghai, the coating absorbs heat from the Sun when the temperature drops below 20 degrees C, helping to warm the building. But when the temperature rises above 20 degrees C the coating changes color and reflects sunlight to keep the building cool.
http://www.newscientist.com/newsletter/news.jsp?id=ns228741

 
A NEW PAINT COULD STOP YOUR HOUSE BURNING DOWN !

A paper-thin ceramic coating, originally developed by NASA to stop space shuttles from bursting into flames when re-entering the atmosphere, could soon stop houses from burning down here on Earth.
http://www.newscientist.com/newsletter/news.jsp?id=ns228940


— Glimpse of a New Type of Matter —

Frozen helium has been turned into a solid that behaves like a superfluid.

Philip Ball
Nature News Service / Macmillan Magazines Ltd 2004 ©
15 January 2004

Researchers in the United States think they have found a new state of matter — a supersolid.

If their findings are correct, this state is deeply bizarre. Although it is a crystalline solid, it can 'flow' like the most slippery liquid imaginable — in fact, like a liquid with no viscosity.

Liquids that can do this have been known about for years. They are called superfluids, and because they have no viscosity they behave in strange ways. Once stirred, a superfluid will keep swirling forever, whereas a vortex stirred into a normal liquid will eventually exhaust itself and disappear. A superfluid will even creep up the side and out the top of a container.

The first two superfluids made by researchers were created using helium-4 and helium-3. Both need to be cooled close to absolute zero (–273 C) before their superfluid behaviour appears.

Eun-Seong Kim and Moses Chan of Pennsylvania State University now claim to have turned frozen helium-4 into a supersolid. They did this by filling the narrow channels of a porous form of glass (called Vycor) with helium, and freezing it by cooling it down and squeezing it to more than 60 times atmospheric pressure. A disk of the helium-filled glass was then set spinning. At about 0.175 C above absolute zero, the disk suddenly started to rotate more easily — precisely what would be expected if the helium became a supersolid.

The same thing happens when liquid helium as a superfluid is used in the Vycor pores, because the non-viscous liquid spins more readily.

Kim and Chan say it is hard to explain their findings without invoking a supersolid state. But John Beamish of the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, says their claim "is sure to generate some controversy". Some researchers might wonder, for example, whether some liquid helium might still be coating the Vycor pore walls and become a superfluid, causing the disk to spin more freely. But Kim and Chan insist that this is unlikely.

Quantum Weirdness

Solid helium itself is a fairly weird substance. At very low temperatures, the behaviour of helium atoms is dictated by quantum mechanics, and this prevents helium from freezing at all, no matter how cold it is, unless it is pressurized to at least 25 atmospheres. The 'quantum solid' that results is very loose — unlike most frozen solids it can be squeezed like rubber, and the regular crystal lattice of atoms is full of gaps, called vacancies, that move about.

When liquid helium becomes a superfluid, the laws of quantum mechanics make all the atoms move coherently, like a regiment of soldiers. This is why flow in a superfluid, once started, cannot easily be stopped.

In supersolid helium, all of the vacancies in the crystal likewise start to move coherently, which means that waves can progress through the lattice.

The onset of this coherent motion is called Bose–Einstein condensation. In superconductors, Bose-Einstein condensation of electrons at low temperatures allows electrical current to pass with no resistance. Since 1995, Bose–Einstein condensation of atoms has been seen in a variety of ultracold gases.

References:

1. Kim, E. & Chan, M. H. W. Probable observation of a supersolid helium phase.
Nature, 427, 225 - 227, doi:10.1038 / nature 02220 (2004).


Special Properties of the Transition Group Elements

Understanding Colloidal Suspensions

Cold Fusion Really Works
Dr. Edmund Storms' work

Atoms That Add

The Resonate Coil Project

Understanding That Nature Obeys Rules, Too !
Tommy's History of Western Technology.

Hydroponic Reference Center

Using Hydroponics to Understand the Earth's Life Processes
On the Atomic Level

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