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( I believe this book to be the first presentation of its type. — Tommy Cichanowski — )

Color Pictures of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants

from

The Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies  in Plants  by Visual Symptoms
by Thomas Wallace, M.C., D.Sc., A.I.C.
University of Bristol Agricultural and Horticulture Research Station, Long Ashton, Bristol

London — Published by His Majesty's Stationary Office — 1943

— Crown Copyright Reserved —


 
 

Index

  • Flax
  • Hops
  • Kale
  • Lettuce
  • Maize
  • Mangold
  • Oats
  • Onion
  • Parsnip
  • Pear
  • Peas
  • Plum
  • Potatoes
  • Radish
  • Rape
  • Rye
  • Spinach
  • Sugar Beet
  • Swede
  • Table Beets      
  • Tomatoes
  • Turnips
  • Wheat
  • Top of Page

     
    

    I. POTATOES IN SAND CULTURE

     
    
    Potato Plant in Sand Culture 1. Complete Nutrient Solution — Healthy growth.

    Potato Plant in Sand Culture

    Growth Normal; foliage healthy green color.

     
    
    Potato Plant in Sand Culture 2. Nitrogen Deficiency — Severely restricted growth, upright habit.

    Potato Plant in Sand Culture

    Growth small and single thin shoots; upright habit; leaves pale green color.

     
    
    Potato Plant in Sand Culture 3. Phosphorus Deficiency — Restricted growth, leaves rolled forward.

    Potato Plant in Sand Culture

    Growth small and shoots thin; upright habit; leaves slightly pale, with forward roll and scorched margins; defoliation of oldest leaves.

     
    
    Potato Plant in Sand Culture 4. Calcium Deficiency — Tip leaves small, rolled and scorched.

    Potato Plant in Sand Culture

    Growth fairly good; young leaves chlorotic, forward roll and marginal scorch. This plant failed to form tubers of appreciable size.

     
    
    Potato Plant in Sand Culture 5. Magnesium Deficiency — Chlorosis and necrosis of leaves, defoliation.

    Potato Plant in Sand Culture

    Growth fairly good; foliage chlorotic and with intervenal necrosis; death of older foliage and severe defoliation.

     
    
    Potato Plant in Sand Culture 6. Potassium Deficiency — Marginal leaf scorch.

    Potato Plant in Sand Culture

    Growth fairly good; leaves bluish-green and intervenal chlorosis, spotting and marginal scorch present.

     
     
    

    II. NATURAL AUTUMN FOLIAGE TINTS

     
    
    Apple Leaves 7. Apple Leaves — No mineral deficiencies.

    Stages in development of natural autumn tints.

     
    

    Index

    III. DEFICIENCIES AS SHOWN IN FIELD CROPS

    Phosphorus Deficiency

     
    
    Young Wheat Plants 8. Wheat, Young Plants — Purpling and withering of leaves.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Older leaves purple tinting and dying off.

     
    
    Oat Stems 9. Oat Stems — Purpling.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Leaf sheaths strong purple tints.

     
    
    Barley Stems 10. Barley Stems — Purpling.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Stems bluish green and leaf sheaths strong purple tints.

     
    
    Barley Heads 11. Barley Heads — Purpling of beard.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Beards strong purple tints.

     
    
    Marrow Stem Kale 12. Marrow Stem Kale Plant — Purpling of leaves.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Growth thin and upright; older leaves purple and reddish purple tints.

     
    
    Rape Plant 13. Rape Plant — Purple and red tinting of leaves.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Older leaves strong purple and red tints.

     
    
    Brussels Sprout Plant 14. Brussels Sprout Plant — Purpling of leaves.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Plant has remained stunted; leaves bluish-green with dull purple tints.

     
    
    Swede Leaves 15. Swede Leaves — Purpling.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Swede leaves. Dull purple and reddish purple tints, mainly near margins.

     
    
    Sugar Beet Plant 16. Sugar Beet Plant — Leaves dull green, faint bronzing and purple spotting.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Leaves green, lack luster, slight bronzing and purple spotting near margins.

     
    
    Potato Foliage 17. Potato Stem — Defoliation of older leaves and marginal scorching of younger leaves.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Potato Foliage. Leaves green, lack luster, margins scorched and curled towards upper surfaces.

     
    
    Maize Plant 18. Maize Plant — Purpling of leaves.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Leaves strong purple tints.

     
    
    Apple Leaves 19. Apple Leaves — Typical bronzing.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Dull purple and bronze tints.

     
    
    Gooseberry Foliage 20. Gooseberry Shoot — Purpling of leaves.

    Phosphorus Deficiency

    Leaves dull purple tints, becoming red later.

    
    

    Index

    Calcium Deficiency

     
    
    Marrow Stem Kale 21. Marrow Stem Kale — Forward rolling of leaves, chlorosis and ragged leaf margins.

    Calcium Deficiency

    Leaves curled forward, margins white bands, later scorched and ragged.

     
    
    Savoy Cabbage 22. Savoy Cabbage — Forward rolling of leaves, chlorosis and ragged leaf margins.

    Calcium Deficiency

    Leaves curled forward, margins white bands, later scorched and ragged.

     
    
    Turnip 23. Turnip — Marginal leaf scorch.

    Calcium Deficiency

    Leaves curled forward, margins pale yellow bands, widening later and becoming brown and scorched; scorched portions curl sharply over towards upper surface.

     
    
    Sugar Beet 24. Sugar Beet — Forward rolling of leaves and ragged, scorched leaf margins.

    Calcium Deficiency

    Leaves curled forward; margins scorched and ragged.

     
    

    Index

    Magnesium Deficiency

     
    
    Cauliflower Plant 25. Cauliflower Plant — Chlorotic "marbling" and high tints.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Older leaves highly tinted in intervenal areas; cream chlorotic marbling and orange, red and purple tints.

     
    
    Young Cauliflower Plants 26. Cauliflower Seedlings — Tinting of older leaves.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Older leaves high yellow, red and purple tints.

     
    
    Block of Cauliflowers at Cutting Time 27. Cauliflower Field at Cutting Time — Chlorosis and tinting.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Older leaves strong marbling and tinting.

     
    
    Broccoli Leaves 28. Broccoli Leaves — Chlorotic "marbling" and tinting.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Strong marbling and tinting as for cauliflower.

     
    
    Swede Leaves 29. Swede Leaves (Late Stage) — Intervenal red "marbling".

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Red intervenal tinting following chlorotic marbling.

     
    
    Sugar Beet Leaves 30. Sugar Beet Leaves — Intervenal chlorosis and marginal necrosis.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Intervenal chlorosis, beginning at margins and progressing towards midrib; chlorosis followed by marginal and intervenal necrosis.

     
    
    Sugar Beet Plant 31. Sugar Beet Plant (in situ) — Intervenal chlorosis and necrosis older leaves.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Older leaves severe intervenal chlorosis and necrosis.

     
    
    Sugar Beet Plants 32. Sugar Beet Plants — General Field View-Intervenal chlorosis and necrosis older leaves.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Chlorosis, necrosis and dropping of older leaves.

     
    
    Table Beet Plant 33. Garden Beet Plant — Intervenal chlorosis and tinting older leaves.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Older leaves, intervenal chlorosis and reddish tinting.

     
    
    Potato Leaf 34. Potato Leaf — Leaflets central intervenal necrosis and marginal "blight" attack.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Leaflets central intervenal necrosis and marginal "blight" attack (Phytophthora infestans).

     
    
    Potato Shoot 35. Potato Shoot (var. Sharpes Express) — Tip foliage showing marginal and intervenal necrosis.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Leaflets marginal and intervenal chlorosis.

     
    
    Potato Plant 36. Potato Plant (var. Dunbar Rover) — Chlorosis and central intervenal leaf necrosis.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Chlorosis and central intervenal necrosis, beginning at oldest leaves.

     
    
    Potato Plants 37. Potato-Field View — Chlorosis and central leaf necrosis.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Older foliage showing severe chlorosis and central intervenal necrosis.

     
    
    Tomato Leaf 38. Tomato Leaf — Chlorotic pattern.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Central intervenal chlorotic yellowing of leaflets.

    Tomato Page

     
    
    Tomato Plants 39. Tomato Plants in Sand Culture — Early stage of chlorosis of lower leaves.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Severe chlorotic yellowing of oldest leaves; chlorosis progressing to younger foliage.

    Tomato Page

     
    
    Hop Leaf 40. Hop Leaf — Intervenal necrosis.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Marginal and intervenal yellowing and necrosis.

     
    
    Apple Tree 41. Apple Tree — Defoliation of shoots.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Defoliation of terminal shoots progressing from base to tip.

     
    
    Apple Leaves 42. Apple Leaves (var. Lane's Prince Albert) — Chlorosis and central intervenal necrosis.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Intervenal chlorosis and necrosis.

     
    
    Apple Leaves 43. Apple Leaves (var. Cox Orange Pippin) — Central intervenal necrosis.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Central intervenal necrosis.

     
    
    Apple Leaves 44. Apple Leaves — Purpling and intervenal necrosis from marginal areas.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Purple tinting and intervenal necrosis developing from marginal areas.

     
    
    Gooseberry Foliage 45. Gooseberry Branch — Marginal leaf coloration.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Leaves broad red marginal bands which fade to cream color.

     
    
    Gooseberry and Black Currant Leaves 46. Gooseberry and Black Currant Leaves — Leaf colorations.

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Gooseberry leaves: broad red marginal bands. Black Current leaves: purple centers and green margins.

     
    

    Index

    Potassium Deficiency

     
    
    Barley Plants 47. Barley Plants — Tillering and leaf spot attack.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Tillering excessive; leaves bluish-green and much dying off, beginning near tips and margins: severe Leaf Stripe (Helminthosporium gramineum) also present.

     
    
    Marrow Stem Kale Plant 48. Marrow Stem Kale Plant — Marginal leaf scorch.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Growth aquat; leaves bluish-green, slight chlorosis near margins; margins scorched and curl sharply forward.

     
    
    Cauliflower Plants at Cutting Time 49. Cauliflower Plants at Cutting Time — Marginal and intervenal browning.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Leaves severe marginal and intervenal scorch.

     
    
    Cabbage Plant 50. Cabbage Plant — Marginal leaf scorch.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Older leaves severe marginal scorch and forward curling of leaf margins.

     
    
    Swede Plant 51. Swede Plant — Marginal leaf scorch and intervenal chlorosis.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Leaves dull green with marginal and intervenal chlorosis; margins scorched and curled forward.

     
    
    Sugar Beet Plant 52. Sugar Beet Plant — Marginal and intervenal browning.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Older leaves severe marginal and intervenal scorch; they shrivel and hang down limply.

     
    
    Mangold Plant Field View 53. Mangold Plant — Marginal and intervenal browning.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Older leaves severe marginal and intervenal scorch; They shrivel and hang down limply around bulb.

     
    
    Potato Foliage 54. Potato Foliage — Bronzing and scorching of leaves.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Bronzing and scorching of leaves.

     
    
    Potato Foliage, Field View 55. Potato Foliage — Marginal scorching and intervenal chlorosis.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Intervenal chlorosis in addition to bronzing and scorching of leaves; oldest leaves are withering.

     
    
    Potato Plants, Field View 56. Potato Plants — Field View-Collapse of foliage and haulms.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Collapse of haulms, withering of leaves and defoliation.

     
    
    Tomato Leaf 57. Tomato Leaf — Marginal scorch following gray tints.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Marginal and intervenal gray coloration followed by marginal scorching.

    Tomato Page

     
    
    Tomato Fruit 58. Tomato Fruit — Blotchy uneven ripening, cracking of skin near stem.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Blotchy ripening: green and yellow areas merging into general red color of surface.

    Tomato Page

     
    
    Field Bean Plant 59. Field Bean Plant — Marginal scorching of leaves.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Short internodes; leaves scorched and forward curled margins.

     
    
    Runner Bean Shoot 60. Runner Bean Shoot — Marginal scorching and intervenal chlorosis of leaves.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Leaflets curled backward; strong intervenal chlorosis and brown marginal scorch; scorched areas curled forward.

     
    
    Onion Plant 61. Onion Plant — Die-back and browning of leaves.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Dying off of older leaves and dying back of leaves from tips.

     
    
    Maize Plant 62. Maize Plant — Marginal scorching of leaves.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Internodes short, leaves relatively long; marginal and tip browning of leaves.

     
    
    Hop Leaf 63. Hop Leaf — Marginal scorching.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Slight marginal chlorosis followed by scorching.

     
    
    Apple Leaves 64. Apple Leaves — Marginal leaf scorch.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Leaves bluish-green with slight marginal and intervenal chlorosis, followed by marginal scorching, either brown or grayish brown color.

     
    
    Gooseberry Leaves 65. Gooseberry Leaves — Marginal leaf scorch.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Leaves bluish-green, generally curled backward; developing purpling tints followed by grayish brown marginal scorch; purpling disappears as scorching develops.

     
    
    Black Currant Foliage 66. Black Currant Shoot — Leaf purpling preceding marginal scorch.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Purple tinting of leaves which precedes development of marginal scorch.

     
    
    Black Currant Foliage 67. Black Currant Shoot — Marginal leaf scorch.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Brown marginal scorch and intervenal chlorosis which follows purple tinting.

     
    
    Red Current Foliage 68. Red Currant Shoot — Marginal leaf scorch and slight chlorosis.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Marginal leaf scorch with forward curling of margins and intervenal chlorosis.

     
    
    Raspberry Leaf 69. Raspberry Leaf — Marginal leaf scorch and intervenal necrosis.

    Potassium Deficiency

    Marginal leaf scorch and intervenal browning; leaves generally curl towards under surfaces.

     
      
    

    Index

    Iron Deficiency

     
    
     70. Young Wheat Plants — Severe chlorosis beginning at tips of leaves.

    Iron Deficiency

    Severe chlorosis of leaves, beginning at tips; death of tips.

     
    
    Broccoli Plant 71. Broccoli Plant — Chlorosis of leaves.

    Iron Deficiency

    Chlorosis of leaves, beginning as a chlorotic motting.

     
    
    Savoy Cabbage Plant 72. Savoy Cabbage Plant — Severe chlorosis of leaves.

    Iron Deficiency

    Severe chlorosis of leaves, beginning as a chlorotic motting.

     
    
    Turnip Plant 73. Turnip Plant — Chlorotic mottling of leaves.

    Iron Deficiency

    Chlorotic mottling of leaves.

     
    
    Tomato Foliage 74. Tomato Foliage — Intervenal chlorosis and necrosis of tip foliage.

    Iron Deficiency

    Tip leaves chlorosis of leaflets, most severe near midribs and bases, followed by necrosis.

    Tomato Page

     
    
    Raspberry Foliage 75. Raspberry Foliage — Chlorosis of leaves.

    Iron Deficiency

    Tip leaves severe chlorosis followed by necrosis.

     
    
    Strawberry Plant 76. Strawberry Plant — Chlorosis of leaves.

    Iron Deficiency

    Leaves severe marginal and intervenal chlorosis.

     
    

    Index

    Manganese Deficiency

     
    
    Oat Plants 77. Oat Plants — Gray Speck lesions and blind panicles.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves grayish-brown elongated specks and streaks, most prevalent in basal halves; Breaking of leaves with distal areas remaining green; empty panicles.

     
    
    Marrow Stem Kale Plant 78. Marrow Stem Kale Plant — Chlorotic "marbling" of leaves.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Early stage of deficiency, leaves intervenal chlorotic marbling.

     
    
    Marrow Stem Kale Plant 79. Marrow Stem Kale Plant — Severe chlorosis.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Advanced stage of deficiency, leaves very severe chlorosis.

     
    
    Savoy Cabbage Plant 80. Savoy Cabbage Plant — Chlorosis and necrosis.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves severe intervenal chlorotic marbling and necrosis.

     
    
    Sugar Beet Leaf 81. Sugar Beet Leaf — Intervenal chlorosis (Speckled Yellows).

    Manganese Deficiency

    Severe intervenal chlorosis, "Speckled Yellows".

     
    
    Sugar Beet Plant 82. Sugar Beet Plant — Severe intervenal chlorosis of foliage.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves severe "Speckled Yellows" and leaf margins curled forward.

     
    
    Table Beet Leaves 83. Garden Beet Leaves — Intervenal speckling.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves triangular shape, margins curled forward and severe intervenal speckling.

     
    
    Table Beet Plant 84. Garden Beet Plant — Intervenal speckling.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves triangular shape, margins curled forward; older leaves severely speckled; root dwarfed.

     
    
    Table Beet, Field View 85. Garden Beet (General Field View) — Reddening of foliage of globe beet.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Foreground susceptible "globe" variety severely speckled; background resistant "long" variety.

     
    
    Parsnip Leaf 86. Parsnip Leaf — Intervenal chlorosis.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Severe marginal and intervenal chlorosis.

     
    
    Potato Leaves 87. Potato Leaves — Black specks along veins.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves from near tips of shoots still green but showing characteristic spotting along veins.

     
    
    Potato Plants, Field View 88. Potato Plants (General View) — Stunted growth and chlorosis of young foliage.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Stunted growth and dying of haulm at tips; leaves pale and younger leaves yellow or necrotic; tip leaflets small and strong forward curling of margins.

     
    
    Runner Bean Leaves 89. Runner Bean Leaves — Intervenal chlorosis.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaflets intervenal chlorosis.

     
    
    Dwarf (French) Bean Plants 90. Dwarf (French) Bean Plants — Severe chlorosis and intervenal necrosis.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves severe chlorosis and necrosis.

     
    
    Apple Foliage (var. Cox Orange Pippin) 91. Apple Foliage (var. Cox Orange Pippin) — Marginal and intervenal chlorosis.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves marginal and intervenal chlorosis.

     
    
    Apple Foliage (var. Early Victoria) 92. Apple Foliage (var. Early Victoria) — Severe chlorosis.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves severe chlorosis; intervenal pattern less pronounced than for Cox Orange Pippin.

     
    
    Apple Tree (var. Early Victoria) 93. Apple Tree (var. Early Victoria) — Severe chlorosis.

    Manganese Deficiency

    Leaves severe chlorosis over practically whole tree; young leaves of terminal shoots not as severely affected as older leaves.

     
    

    Index

    Boron Deficiency

     
    
    Marrow Stem Kale Plant 94. Marrow Stem Kale Plant — Distortion of young foliage and crack in stem.

    Boron Deficiency

    Distortion of young leaves, marginal mottling and external vertical crack in stem.

     
    
    Marrow Stem Kale 95. Marrow Stem Kale Stem — Crack in stem.

    Boron Deficiency

    Stem Portion. External vertical crack.

     
    
     96. Kale Stem — Longitudinal and transverse sections-Hollow center and infection with bacillus carotovorus.

    Boron Deficiency


     
    
    Savoy Cabbage 97. Savoy Cabbage Stem — Browning and necrosis of pith.

    Boron Deficiency

    Longitudinal Section of Stem. Necrosis and splitting of pith.

     
    
    Swede Roots 98. Swede Roots — Transverse and longitudinal sections-Brown Heart condition.

    Boron Deficiency

    Longitudinal and Transverse Sections. Water-soaked and brown areas. "Brown Heart" condition.

     
    
    Swede Roots, External View 99. Swede Roots — External View – Rough skin condition.

    Boron Deficiency

    Rough skin condition found accompanying "Brown Heart" but not usual.

     
    
    Young Sugar Beet Plant 100. Sugar Beet, Young Plant — Small and distorted crown leaves.

    Boron Deficiency

    Early stage of boron deficiency. Young leaves distorted and fail to develop.

     
    
    Old Sugar Beet Plant 101. Sugar Beet, Old Plant — Old leaves scorched and wilted, cluster of young crown leaves.

    Boron Deficiency

    Old leaves wilted, wilted, scorched and show patches of yellow pigment. Original crown leaves have died, followed by development of numerous small misshapen leaves from secondary growing points.

     
    
    Sugar Beet Plant 102. Sugar Beet — Heart Rot (boron deficiency) and Intervenal Chlorosis (manganese deficiency).

    Boron And Manganese Deficiency

    Boron deficiency shown by "Crown Rot"; manganese deficiency by speckled condition of leaves ("Speckled Yellows").

     
    
    Mangold Plant (in situ) 103. Mangold Plant (in situ) — Cluster of crown leaves and rotting of root.

    Boron Deficiency

    Development of leaves from secondary growing points on crown and rotting of root at side.

     
    
    Mangold Plant 104. Mangold Plant — Rotting of crown and rough condition of petiole epidermis.

    Boron Deficiency

    Typical case of "Crown Rot". Petioles of leaves show cracking of epidermis on upper surfaces.

     
    
    Mangold Plants 105. Mangold Plants — Rotting of crown leaves and roots.

    Boron Deficiency

    Death of foliage and rotting of roots.

     
    
    Table Beet Plants 106. Table Beet Plants — External view of "Canker".

    Boron Deficiency

    Death of foliage and rotting of outer tissues of the roots ("Canker").

     
    
    Table Beet Roots 107. Table Beet Plants — Cross section of roots showing superficial "Canker".

    Boron Deficiency

    Transverse Section through Canker Area. "Canker" lesions restricted to outer tissues; may spread towards center later.

     
    
    Potato Foliage 108. Potato Foliage — Boron toxicity effects, marginal browning.

    Boron Toxicity

    Toxic effects show as narrow brown, marginal rims on leaflets.

     
    
    Potato Foliage 109. Potato Foliage — Boron toxicity (marginal browning) and magnesium deficiency (intervenal necrosis).

    Boron Toxicity And Magnesium Deficiency

    Boron toxicity shown by narrow brown marginal rims on leaflets; magnesium deficiency by intervenal necrosis.

     
    

    Index

    IV. SYMPTOMS WHICH MAY BE CONFUSED WITH NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES

     
    
    Sugar Beet Leaves 110. Sugar Beet Leaves — Virus Yellows, intervenal chlorosis (cf. Plate No. 30, intervenal chlorosis, magnesium deficiency).

    "Virus Yellows" of Sugar Beet

    Leaves intervenal "yellowing" in asymmetrical patches; yellow patches brittle and crackle when squeezed in the hand. May be confused with magnesium deficiency symptoms. (cf. Plate No. 30)

     
    
    Sugar Beet Foliage 111. Sugar Beet Plant — Virus Yellows (cf. Plate No. 31, intervenal chlorosis, magnesium deficiency)

    "Virus Yellows" of sugar beet

    Leaves upright, "yellowing" in patches and often most severe near tips. (cf. Plate No. 31, magnesium deficient plant)

     
    
    Cabbage Plant 112. Cabbage Plant — Insect injury to terminal bud (cf. Plate No. 94, Kale, distortion, boron deficiency)

    Insect Damage (Root Flies, Weevils, etc.)

    Injury to growing point and distortion of leaves, may be confused with boron deficiency.

     
    
    Turnip Plant 113. Turnip Plant — Insect injury to laminae and petioles of leaves (cf. Plate No. 104, Mangold, distortion and petiole roughening, boron, deficiency)

    Insect Damage (Root Flies, Weevils, etc.)

    Distortion of foliage and injury to petioles, may be confused with boron deficiency.

     
    
    Red Currant Foliage 114. Red Currant — Chloride injury (cf. Plate No. 68, leaf scorch, potassium deficiency)

    Chloride Injury

    Marginal scorching may be confused with leaf scorch due to potassium deficiency. (cf. Plate No. 68)

     
    

    The Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants by Visual Symptoms

    by Thomas Wallace, M.C., D.Sc., A.I.C.


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