Sodium Chloride
Na Cl

{Merck Index - © 1952 by Merck & Co., Inc.}

Sodium Chloride: Salt; common salt; the article of commerce is also known as table salt, rock salt, or sea salt. NaCl; mot. wt. 58.45. Na 39.34%, Cl 60.66%.

The U.S.P. grade is at least 99.5% pure. The "salt" in general use is 98-99% pure.

Cubic, white crystals, granules, or powder; colorless and transparent or translucent when in large crystals. d. 2.17. The salt of commerce usually contains some calcium and magnesium chlorides which absorb moisture and make it cake. m. 804°C and begins to volatilize at a little above this temp. One gram dissolves in 2.8 ml. water at 25°, in 2.6 ml. boil. water, in 10 ml. glycerol; very slightly soluble in alcohol. Its solubility in water is decreased by HCl and it is almost insoluble in concentr. HCl. Its aq. soln. is neutral. pH: 6.7-7.3. d. of saturated aq. soln. at 25°C. is 1.202. A 23% aq. soln. of sodium chloride freezes at –20.5°C. (5°F.).

Use: Natural salt is the source of chlorine and of sodium as well as of all or practically all of their compounds, e.g., hydrochloric acid, chlorates, sod. carbonate, hydroxide, etc.; for preserving foods; manuf. soap, dyes-to salt them out; in freezing mixtures; for dyeing and printing fabrics, glazing pottery, curing hides; metallurgy of tin and other metals.

Grades available: Reagent, U.S.P., technical.

Med. Use: In salt depletion, for hydration, laxative, emetic.

Caution: Large doses cause nausea and vomiting. Dose: Orally 2% soln. or 8 to 15 g. Parenterally, isotonic soln.

Vet. Use: Extern. isotonic or hypertonic solutions for irrigation of deep wounds. Orally in indigestion of horses, cattle; as emetic in dogs. i.v. as isotonic solution to raise blood volume. As enema in oxyuriasis.

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