Chapter 9
The Fusor Reactor  —  Dr. Philo Farnsworth

"Lost Science"   by Gerry Vassilatos
Limited permission granted to use this material in other presentations.
ISBN 0-932813-75-5   © 1999



RAY OF DISCOVERY

There was once a dream of endless energy, of radiance without end. As dreams do, it found its material expressions in the discoveries of several truly gifted researchers. The dream symbols seek those who seek them. The discoveries were all the results of accidents. Fortunate accidents. Nevertheless, the world did see manifestations of dream-like energies whose sources were potent, mysterious, and eternal. It seemed then that these wonderful inventions, these strange power generators would fulfill so much of the dream and hope, the passion and desire of those who wait in silence.

These mysterious devices were received, gracious gifts from the providential source. Among those in whose hands the devices found their material expression, there was no question concerning their source. Here were anomalies of Nature. No one could have developed these things from existing lines of scientific inquiry. To do that would have required, in hindsight, another few centuries. No, the radiant energy receivers of Moray, Perrigo, Tomadelli, Hendershot, Hubbard, Coler, and so many others, were not the result of mere scientific persistence.

But, why were they given? Perhaps it was both because of an impending need and a humanly intended objective. Great revelations always precede potential world crisis. Great revelations precede human need. Perhaps they came to fulfill the world's need for energy. Clean, safe energy. They all appeared at around the same time period. Both sides of the Century's turn was witness to these wondrous discoveries. Perhaps also they came because the wrong use of certain natural energies would be proliferated on earth, endangering all life. There are those who will not argue with this understanding.

The discoveries arrive like a piercing ray. Where the discoveries appear makes no difference. Their benefits are intended for the whole race. They come like a ray in the night, striking into hearts who seek. The process is an active manifestation of external consciousness. Those who receive this blessed Ray make the discoveries, which are sent to save the entire race from impending perils. They have each seen and spoken of that Ray of Discovery. What humanity chooses to do with such messages will determine the future of nations.


TECHNOPOLITICS

A recent announcement from plasma physicists promises new and thrilling advancements in the generation of electrical energy for society. The prize of this research is cheap, clean, limitless electrical power in vast, limitless quantities. The energy source of which they speak could theoretically last for millennia. For this they require new billions for continued research. And the billions are obtained.

The hot fusion advocates, mostly grant-greedy academes and their research teams, paint a lovely future before eager Senate hearing committees. The very fact that Senate committees entertain such proposals at all makes conspicuous several startling facts. It becomes at once apparent that large and radical policy shifts in technological funding have been called into action. Once upon a time, proposals for hot fusion and space program initiatives were squashed flat by committee members. Having their own ties with fossil fuel cartels, none were willing to risk the emergence of new and futuristic technologies at the risk of their own financial security.

But now we see a defined policy shift propelling toward the new technology, as if some new regulatory strategy were being deployed. It is difficult to assess these behaviors and fiscal movements. Traditionally, American Money is made by resisting discoveries and technologies, not by promoting them. But there may be new regulatory variables and fears, which we must continue to assess.

Academes profess that the free social expression of hot fusion technology would trigger startling social revolutions. Like master behavioral modifiers, their words play the heartstrings well. The new improvement, they say, would mean the obsolescence of fossil fuels. Independence from every foreign oil source would be part of the "advantage". Along with this obsolescence would come the disappearance of every fossil fuel attendant environmental plague. Next, they project the deployment of hot fusion power generating stations. Small industrial scale hot fusion reactors could supply all nationally needed electrical power, supplying it forever. Commercial hot fusion reactors will arise, they swear, if the government-backed research is licensed out to private concerns. According to the idealistic economists, which they employ, the long-range effects of this hot fusion revolution will not destroy the fossil fuel interests. Their economic advisers suggest that fossil fuel industries gradually begin shifting their markets from fuel to petrochemical sales. While such altruism has not been the historical response of the coal and oil companies, the committee members strain to hear and absorb each word of promise. Some are still careful, since Standard Oil is an American based trust. Showing a vote for new technology could be dangerous.

As the utopian promises of clean, cheap energy are waved before the committees in yearly bids for extensive contracts, the facts are not so flowery. In fact, the facts are not promising at all. It is surprising that academes who pursue hot fusion research are never as caustic when reviewing their own data results as they are with the research proposals of others.

The contradictory note in this scientific fund-raising symphony is very dissonant to those familiar with Hot Fusion's past history. Yet, the bid-making proposals go on, the yearly show which brings them salaries. The hot fusion "prize", sought through modern methods is, at best, elusive. Analysts who have followed the shaky course of current hot fusion research know the disappointments, failures, and practical limits of the entire hot fusion program. And there are limits to which real success in the hot fusion endeavor is also limited. But these are all very costly disappointments. Physicists who periodically announce minor "success" in the hot fusion race usually employ these announcements, obscure technical diversions, in their continuing effort to obtain continued support. But the dreams they wave are figments, the patchwork fragments of a former dream, which was, fulfilled in numerous energy discoveries. Long before "atomic" or "nuclear" were termed, there were real dream fulfillments, whose material vessels matched their promise. And they were inexpensive to reproduce.

But perhaps we may cite a general ignorance of the scientific community to their own treasures once again. Those fusion researchers, who made the most recent demands for federal funding, dared to project their promise of practical success out toward the year 2050! Never before has such an outrageous demand for monies been poised on such a precarious pinpoint. This bombastic announcement sounded more like a technological bribe, from individuals who wished to secure salaries and eventual pensions from government sources! Most skeptical individuals, themselves academes, would guess the obvious. While drawing heavy salaries, hot fusion researchers have nothing real to give. The modern charlatans at court. But, an historical shredding open of the technical evidence concerning hot fusion projects will prove most illuminating; the revelation being that controlled hot fusion was actually achieved ... thirty years ago.


FUSION

Fusion Energy. What is "Fusion" energy? The atomic bomb operates when uranium atoms are split to release their binding energy. The controlled splitting of atoms in fission reactors produces heat and waste products.. Fission reactors need highly toxic uranium or plutonium and pose environmentally problematic waste disposal.

In his theoretical approach to the "problem" of solar energy, Hans Bethe proposed that the sun uses another kind of atomic process. Dr. Bethe claimed that the fission process, but the fusion of nuclei results in the huge release of energy in the sun. According to Bethe, hydrogen is the fuel for the solar fusion process; a gas which almost entirely occupies the solar atmosphere. In the solar fusion reaction, hydrogen nuclei are drawn together in ever tightening collisions. The gravitational force of the solar mass providing the "compression" power.

Increased collision among hydrogen atoms first produces heating, ionization, and finally nuclear fusion. This process requires titanic extremes of compression, which are unknown on earth. Nuclei, at a given radius, repel one another through electrostatic force. Within a specific radius however, the nuclear forces become prominent. With greater numbers of collisions, in ever-dense collision radii, free nuclei begin to "merge" on collision. Energy is released when the nuclei weld. Many readers often question how this is possible. While it is easier to imagine the release of excess energy in fission reactions, many have difficulty understanding how an "excess" energy can be released through a "merger". In the early days of atomic theory, nuclei were not viewed as static structures of protons and neutrons. They were not seen as "locked" crystals without their own internal dynamics. In fact, nuclei were once viewed as very dynamic systems, having internal gaseous freedoms and particulate "currents" of extraordinary violence (Thomson, Lenard). Nuclei did not have to move in order to acquire this energy. They were possessed of the violent internal motion as part of their own nature. As such, different nuclei interacted as whole systems, each having their own internal kinetic energies. When they approached each other, they did so with great individual powers. Pressures capable of squeezing them together were thus able to cause a blending of the stupendous nuclear dynamics. But, entering thus into nuclear combinations, the internal energies entered into an arena having structural "rules".

Despite the excessive independent dynamics of each nucleus, the rules of nuclear stability energetically constrain nuclei, which merge together. It is here that we see the great world intelligence at work, evidencing naturally preferred states of structural stability at a nuclear level. The states exist throughout space, manifesting during nuclear reactions. The strong nuclear attraction, which binds nuclei on collision, cannot become a stable form without some changes. Energetic changes. Each nucleus in the meld contains its own internal vibrations. Its own nuclear vibrations and currents. Each enters the fusion state with its own vibrational energy, trying to form a new and more stable nuclear "structure". But there is a problem, which occurs when the hydrogen nuclei fuse. There is a sudden excess nuclear vibrational energy which each independently brought. If the fusing nuclei do not eject their own vibrational energies, the new structure they have formed will shear apart. What forces them to do this?

Energy states seek spatial geometries, which are "stable" and "secure". The stability of that new nuclear structure demands that a certain energetic excess be rejected. The vibrational energy, which each nucleus once internally and independently possessed, is thrown outside the new structure, and fusion has fulfilled its operation. Each "new structure" is an helium nucleus. When hydrogen nuclei "fuse" into helium nuclei, they necessarily release neutrons, heat, and light. The process continues until "environmental" changes occur. Changes in the amount of hydrogen nuclei, their collision speeds, the density in which their collisions occur, and the amount of products being ejected will each modify the continual fusion process occurring in the sun.

In nature, the process is controlled by solar mass, heat output, particle output, and subsequent solar volume. The sun acts as an immense "balloon" of gas, expanding when hot and contracting when cold. Too much heat, and it expands. This slows the fusion reaction to a moderate constancy. Too cold, and the mass is pulled back by gravitational forces until the heating and fusing process resumes. In short, the gravitational force is responsible for arranging, maintaining, and governing the solar fusion reaction.

Studying these reactions and the mode of their manifestations, physicists began wondering whether it might be possible to artificially generate "hot" fusion reactions on earth. The idea would be to compress hydrogen artificially, welding nuclei together in a tank. The controlled fusion of hydrogen atoms produces extreme heat, but no radioactive waste products. This latter fact is the most attractive feature of a potential "hot" fusion reactor.

Furthermore, the fuel for a hot fusion reactor would be two heavy hydrogen isotopes. Heavy hydrogens, deuterium and tritium, are both found in seawater. Seawater! There is a world of seawater from which to draw fusion fuel. Uranium industries would collapse overnight. A mixture of deuterium and tritium gases would be the fuel for a hot fusion reactor. A hot fusion reactor would have to heat this gas mixture and contain its colliding nuclei long enough for nuclear hot fusion to occur. And here is precisely where our story begins. The engineering problems accompanying this supposed "simple" reactor proved to be insurmountable for most researchers.


HOT FUSION

The practical research began with the notion that electrical power could replace the huge gravitational forces, which the sun seems to exert on its own "body of hydrogen". This proved, for early developers of "hot fusion reactors", to be a thrilling mark toward which to reach. The essential differences between "neutral" gravitational forces and "polarized" electrical forces only became apparent with later experiments.

Electrically driven hot fusion reactor temperatures must be held at over a million degrees before the hot fusion reaction takes place. The first researchers made use of an effect, which was discovered in Victorian electrical laboratories. Glowing electrical discharges which, otherwise filled their containers, could be made to "pull away" from their container walls completely by increasing the amount of applied electrical current. Further increased applications of current caused the glowing discharge to "pinch". Thus withdrawn to the container axis, the discharges intensified their brilliance beyond the ability of investigators to continue gazing on their light.

The "discharge pinch", a tightly constricted wriggling thread, held a strange energy secret. Early hot fusion researchers retraced the phenomenon, designing their own different pinch discharge systems. In some of these experiments, electrical power was applied in order to ionize and "pinch" deuterium gas at high pressure. Fritz Paneth conducted these investigations in the 1930's, discovering an incredible and anomalous release of excess heat when tungsten and bismuth electrodes were immersed in a high-pressure deuterium atmosphere. The heat made his arc electrodes glow with a dull red heat. This red heat was sustained for a long time after the initiating current was withdrawn. An early fusion reactor.

In similar early experiments with deuterium arcs and palladium electrodes, Dr. Paneth demonstrated the practical and controlled release of fusion reaction heat. Although he was not aware of the true source of this heat, these reactions evidenced radioactive emissions equal to those of radium! Few researchers forgot his work until the Second World War. In typical manner, the scientific community forgets what treasures it possesses. After the War, new fusion experiments were engaged, but did not recall the successful high mark to which Dr. Paneth raised the art.

The first post-War designs were simple cylindrical discharge tubes having opposed electrodes. The more amperage applied, the more pinch was obtained. The more pinch, the closer the theoretical approach to hot fusion. Several early researchers measured neutron emissions, a sure sign that hot fusions were taking place. The problem was, of course, that a reactor would necessarily have to produce its own sustaining hot fusion reaction. This required a tremendous application of electrical power. Furthermore, the arc systems failed because electrode metals would melt into the arc, contaminating the reactions before hot fusion could occur. Contaminants blocked the reaction.

Others tried using a phenomenon discovered by Thomson. Developed by both Tesla and Lenard, the "electrodeless discharge" occurs in sealed glass bulbs when held near oscillating electrical or magnetic fields. In a powerfully oscillating magnetic field, gaseous discharges can "pinch" without metal electrodes. Replacing a transformer coil with a deuterium filled tube effectively approaches the design for a "practical" hot fusion reaction chamber. Magnetic energy induces electrical currents of high amperage in the tube contained gas mixture. The magnetic pressure increases the applied power to a tremendous crescendo and the deuterium gas nuclei begin fusing together. The goal of systems such as these was to reach "self-ignition" temperatures. Self-ignition is the temperature at which it is possible to withdraw all of the externally applied electrical power. Once the initial ignition is achieved, one could simply supply the plasma with fuel. Obtaining electrical power from the reactor is then possible. But, there are significant problems in this prospect.

At the point of self-ignition, the deuterium-tritium mixture is hot. Superhot. This is why the technology is referred to as "Hot Fusion". These superhot ionized gases are dangerous. Containment of the heated hydrogen is the main problem with achieving hot fusion on earth. The ionized gas has to be kept from ever touching the container walls. If they touch, the results are devastating. A hot fusion reactor is far less than a controlled hydrogen bomb, but dangerous nonetheless. Photographs of the numerous failed projects reveals far more than ruptured containers and systems. They are miniature blast sites.

According to the academicians, the key to achieving controlled hot fusion reactions is still found in magnetism. A powerful magnetic field can both ionize and contain the gas away from the container walls. Magnetic containment systems were called "magnetic bottles". Ionized deuterium nuclei fused only as they absorbed energy from applied magnetic fields. The input magnetism acted simply as a "spark" to possibly ignite the nuclear reaction. If all this energy could be sustained for a critical few seconds, hot fusion would begin. Once hot fusion has begun, the extra energy would appear as an electrical "blast" against the applied magnetic field energy. The problem of retrieving any of the released energy would be simply solved through the transformer principle. Hot pulsating fusion cores would induce pulsating electrical currents in field coils, externalizing the extra energy. The theoretical resulting output would dwarf input power by several electrical gigawatts! Power forever. Or so they say.


COLD WAR DREAMS

Nuclear hot fusion formed THE socio-scientific dream. Hot fusion was THE cold war quest. Chevrolets, rock and roll, space travel, and FUSION! Exciting fads, they were the external focal points of human social consciousness. The quest for "reaching fusion" began several years before the end of the Second World War. It occupied the minds of theoreticians, researchers, and scientific developers in every nation. Though forgetful of previous achievements in energy science, the promise of fusion research was limitless energy. Fusion, the single focus of social discussions on future energy, was interrupted one night by a solitary invader from space.

The Space Race abruptly appeared when the Soviet Sputnik was launched. All of the applicable American industrial resources were powerfully moved as by a strong wind when Sputnik appeared in the sky. Suddenly space, the politically necessary new venue, became a technological theme of major importance. The new and unexpected runner in the arena where science met politics, space industries were confined exclusively to the military funding process. The military owned the space race, and still does. This momentary shift in interest, from Fusion to Space, was not to last for very long. While the Space Race had its overt political overtones, the race for Hot Fusion had lasting and more permeating implications. Long after the satellites became capsules, and the capsules became lunar landers, fusion remained the single central technological quest.

Both were extensions of a wonderful dream, which had emerged as social expressions from that mysterious source of all dreams. While every youngster had visionary hopes of becoming a space cadet, it was patently obvious that the "process of selection" was a military one. One had to be a military man to become a spaceman. Space belonged to the military, to men, and not to American Society at large. As the American Space program made its progressive forays against Soviet space technology, most Americans continued their lives with other futuristic visions in mind. The progressive movement of space endeavors, from social expectations to military achievements, was accompanied by a conjugate movement of social attentions from space to earth once again. It was a disappointment, which has had no representatives; a subliminal hurt which altered the dream life of society forever.

This loss of social focus on space travel came back to haunt the space industries. It prompted the new and more socially accessible "space shuttle" project, which seemed to offer, "all common citizens" a chance, however slim, of becoming "space cadets". But the race for Hot Fusion gripped the public with a more certain hope, an earth-fixed hope that was completely accessible and commercially valuable. Common citizens could relate more to a project, which promised new and clean energy sources, and all the ancillary promises, which accompany any such real technological revolution.

People knew that Fusion Energy would completely revolutionize our world. It would have in fact. They waited for its appearance, a lovely dawn on a clean and perfect horizon. Fusion was the Future. The word from researchers, and the promise which they held out to society, was that nothing could stop the forthcoming development of a fusion reactor system. Hot Fusion research had a counterpoise upon which it readily found funding and public support during this time period.

Fusion was the nuclear alternative to uranium technology. Atomic uranium. It was a disappointing phrase replete with dreaded associations. Disappointing because its very mention once filled the mind with imaginary force. The dream of atomic energy was once wonderful. Visionary. Uranium, an earth metal. A power, which could take us to the stars.

The quest for atomic energy began long before the War, gaining dream strength in science gazettes and in a hundred small laboratories the world over. There were even private researchers who experimented with uranium ore, managing to obtain strange energy releases from the minerals. Some took uranium ores, right from the ground, placed them in low-pressure gas chambers, and applied high voltage electrical currents to them. This released tremendous amounts of energy, which greatly exceeded the applied currents. In those days, the sense of the phrase "Atomic" was thoroughly different. And dream suffusions provide the atmospheres, which flood phrases. Atomic energy had a "golden" radiant sense to its mention. Atomic Energy was a phrase first termed by Dr. Gustav Le Bon, the Belgium physicist who preceded all the familiar names having to do with conventional atomic physics. Dr. Le Bon designed small atomic reactors, which engaged photonuclear reactions.

As Dr. Le Bon envisioned atomic energy, it was a force, which could be used as desired with no deadly after effects. He had released tremendous amounts of photonuclear products in his simple reactors with no harmful after effects, and no waste products. He did not employ uranium or any of the heavy metals to release his energies. He did not employ fission reactions. The folklore surrounding atomic energy began with his writings. How the ideas were twisted into considerations of the heavy metals and of fission reactions was the result of work done by the Curies thereafter.

The words "Uranium" and "Radium" were interchangeably used in every science fiction serial of the 1930's. Popular fiction, operating entirely in the dream current of archetypes, had so glamorized atomic energy that none believed an atomic weapon possible. Heroic and fictional science figures utilized these elements in wondrous ways for the benefit of humanity. How they ever could have been used in a bomb was yet inconceivable by the vast majority of readers. Atomic energy had a golden aura, an enveloping halo of wonder. "Atomic" was the future hope. It was the means by which unlimited exploits could be secured by human effort. A new Golden Age would begin, one in which energy would play the major role.

Atomic Power would help humanity to tame the entire planet. Endless supplies of food and water could be obtained by the limitless energies derived from radium or uranium. Travel to any point in the world would never be problematic. Power to delve into the sea or ground to any depth would be secured. New alloys, new medicines, new energy applications would convert the world into the future. A golden future. After these wonders had been achieved, humanity would move out into the sea of space, a new Age of Discovery having begun.

Foreseen and told by H.G. Wells in his short masterpiece "Shapes of Things To Come", the reality was indeed manifesting among certain inventors the world over. The names Paneth, Hubbard, Winkelman, McElrath, and Burke were among those who actually obtained significant amounts of electrical energy from small amounts of radium and natural ores of uranium. These systems were safe. They utilized the natural radioactive decay process of their source matter, converting the energetic outflow of particles and fields into electricity. In numerous cases, the electricity obtained exhibited strange and uncommon characteristics. It was imagined by some that new charged particles might be responsible for the brilliant cold light obtained from these devices.

Progress in these primary atomic "generators" evidenced the dream materialization process. The new world was coming into being. But, simultaneous progress in another vein of study brought about instabilities in the technological expression. While attempting to accelerate radioactive decay, physicists discovered fission reactions. Hailed by academician as the "real atomic power", most recognized a fundamental danger in this research. Natural radioactive decay propelled enough energy, said private researchers, to supply the world for millennia. Atomic Generators simply required a simple means for extracting the available power. No other technique would be necessary.

Several writers, seeing ahead to the time where industrial scale fission systems might be employed everywhere, pointed out the dangers of forcing Nature to yield these energies. Some went so far as to predict a crisis of world proportions, should such energies accidentally be released beyond control. New words began emerging in the literature. CHAIN REACTION. WORLD DEVASTATION. These began permeating the human psyche with terrible consequence. Surface storms on the otherwise calm Dream Sea.

A few engineers calculated the problem of storing spent atomic fuel, stating that such fuel would be radioactive in lethal proportions. The storage of spent fuel would be the major problem of future generations. The lethal spent fuel cartridges would be strong enough to be used in their primary atomic generators anyway. Seeing this would be the result of fission generating systems, most researchers went back to their own experiments.

Deriving usable power from natural radioactivity would be the true means for utilizing this power. No purification process was ever necessary in these systems, as can be seen by the earliest atomic battery patents. In large enough devices, the output power could become enormous and constant, lasting for centuries. Certain of the atomic batteries were vacuum tubes. These systems employed radio frequencies to electronically "pump" the natural radioactive fuels, producing far more electrical output than has ever been seen today in atomic batteries. These systems remain, curiously and conspicuously, forgotten.

While these inventions were being patented and demonstrated in public arenas, fission was gaining new predominance in more military venues. The BOMB was a new "promise", by which present wars would be won, and future wars prevented. But there was a social expression, which caught academicians quite unawares. It was a defined resistance to the development of destructive atom technologies. No one believed that atomic energy could become a weapon first, and then a social power. It was always assumed that atomic energy would be safe and benign. In the minds of informed society, "true atomic power" would have no repercussions. True atomic power was a gift, a benefit, a promise and potential of future safety. Viewed in the light of those forgotten atomic battery patents, one can understand the hope. The documents yet remain; proof that the dream sea expresses truth when willing hearts search and find.

Yet, the fission camp was far more powerful than the innumerable private atomic generator researchers. Intent on proving that Nature could be forced to yield her atomic energies, physicists began performing their deadly experiments under the cloak of military secrecy. Fueled by incredibly wealthy investors, who saw the future atomic industry in the hands of far more "academically accredited" personnel, fission research mounted.

The very term "atomic" had acquired a dirtied name. The sense in the word "Atomic" being reversed from one of golden hope to one of leaden death. Used in war, it was soiled. Guilt and shock. HIROSHIMA. NAGASAKI. Overkill. The thoughts radiated out like deadly rays. Guilt and shock. Even then, wherever and whenever the bombs were tested, fear and doom followed. MUSHROOM CLOUDS. The sense was cold dread. The fear real. The mere thought of an atomic accident made people go into a cold sweat. Cold War sweat and paranoia. Curious, how the fear of atomic fire brought cold sweat. Regulatory attempts to redirect consciousness, renaming it "NUCLEAR" energy, did not much matter.

The word ATOMIC was soiled. DIRTY bombs. Radioactive. FALLOUT. Atomic, Nuclear, terms did not matter. MEGATON. Nightmares in children betrayed the world-permeating sense. STRONTIUM-90. Duck and cover! Prayers directed to protect against WORLD WAR III. The world, ending in atomic fire. ARMAGEDDON. Children thought deeply. If high technology produced atomic energy at its apex, then the world was doomed. The social dream expression had been deferred, suppressed, and eradicated once again by the powerful social predators. The dreams of a few ruled the dream of the many. More hope deferred.

The cutting buzzwords of the Cold Atomic War became a helplessness, which eventually produced a strange social movement away from the curse of high technology. It was as if the bombs had already done their deadly work in the heart, fallout covering the bodies of growing children and producing mutants. Running away. Running dreams. Running from the atomic light, from the Moloch, which threatened to eat children, and parents, and worlds. Running within, rejecting every external thing. Rejecting and reforming. The inner movement among youth did not stop with low-tech. It ran down to no-tech. In a strange psychic plunge, American youth dove into the green psychic earth, reemerging as Amerindians. PEYOTE. BEADS. LONG HAIR. GRAFFITI. EARTH DAY. New buzzwords.

After the War, Uranium was a clean name only in the minds of those who sought it in deserts, with Geiger counters. Uranium was now a money making claim, not a science or dream questing technology. But Fusion was new. Fusion would be the perfection of the nuclear science, which began with the Curies. Fusion would be clean. The process, though nuclear, was CLEAN. It was The FUTURE, a sleek and shining surface of blue metal. Streamlined, with glass spheres, cylinders, and dials. If fission split the world and dream and heart apart. Fusion would heal it back together again.

And so the dream wove itself anew. Smiling white-coated operators, walking through black marble halls and wavery glass windows. Pillars and gold filigree. Beautiful halls and Fusion Reactor sites set in the evergreens. Breathing clean air once again, the perfect vision again. Hydrogen gas, medically hissing from large blue-steel cylinders into the large central glass dome. The Fusion Reactor, a science fiction dream. It was a vision to drink in.

The power of a future civilization. It was where we could become our own future. We could be the advanced aliens from another world, the popular theme of science fiction folklore. We could become the placid Utopians once again. Internalized deep in the heart, where dreams are cultivated, where sensations formed the heart of the quest, we hoped for Fusion, and the promises, which seemed never to stop.

Fusion technology would revolutionize every aspect of our technology. New metals. Bizarre alloys, stronger than steel, lighter than magnesium, and harder than diamond. New transportation. The power for reaching space, small and compact. One could ascend from any earth station and proceed directly into orbit. New medicine. Operations with light, anesthetic rays, healing rays. New communications. New architecture. New municipal works. Electrical cars buzzing along sleek unweathered multi-lane highways, whizzing past waterways carved into the Midwest by fusion powered earth movers.

New industries. All new and "fused". Like glass, fused, smoothened, lovely, and whole again. Nuclear Art. Fusion, the new and strange fire, would change our world. Le Bon, Moray, and the others were not even recalled now. The first dream forgotten, their dream images snapped apart like a cut necklace. Glass beads dripping off their string into a cup of cheap wine. The dream fragments plopped unwillingly into the new vessels.

How the material forms would actually fulfill themselves in real technological expressions did not much matter. That the quest would be fulfilled was enough for most. Healing the wounds and outrage of the former World War, most people simply wished for a peaceful, happy life in the here and now. All of them, working class people. These are the ones who are most touched by the regulators and those who design the working class perimeters. Aware of governmental machinations, now tired of having sacrificed their sons and futures in wars designed to protect foreign investments, most second generation working class people had reached their tolerant patriotic limit.

Fusion would become the accessible, expectable lifestyle of the American Nation. It was the promise, which drove our consent. A dream for citizens, it prompted many to seek professions in related fields of endeavor. Hot fusion reactor designs are not new. The methods toward achieving the "hot fusion dream" have varied in form and principle over the last forty-five years. It was a fractured dream however. It forgot the first discoveries, which made it a redundant exercise.

Each of the Cold War hot fusion projects had wonderful sounding names. They were each worthy of the fractured dream, which empowered them. Scylla, Project Zeta, The Astron Project, The Stellarator, the DCX, ALICE. The names retained their magick until a few more years. Projects appeared in every major industrial corporation. Each project site was enormous and covered up in secrecy. These were usually federally funded, and closely monitored by government agencies, especially whenever success seemed imminent - regulators had found something new to regulate. The race was on. Those who were first to reach the goal would bear away the technical prize, the admiration of generations, and the wonder of an age.

The public needed to (be) educated concerning the forthcoming energy. General Electric even demonstrated a simple hot fusion reactor in their 1964 New York World's Fair pavilion. A public exhibition of Nuclear Fusion! Visitors waiting on lines outside the exhibition, awed by the explosive thunder and light display seen through the doors, waited in hope of glimpsing the future. Powered by a truck sized capacitor bank, the immense current discharged in a thunderous explosion through an enclosed tungsten spark gap.

Shocked witnesses were completely taken aback. The deuterium gas through which this lightning bolt surged was held under a futuristic looking dome of thick Plexiglas. The sudden and blinding red-white discharge produced internal neutron counts, which made neon number displays, rise into the thousands. Each spectator left the windswept pavilion doors, looking into the lovely setting sun and dreaming of the sweeter day.


HOT REACTIONS

Several developmental stages appeared throughout the technological history of hot fusion devices. Arc discharges were first used because the power delivery to arcs was far greater and more direct than the systems, which employed "electrodeless discharge". Electrodeless discharges produced weak arcs by electrostatic or magnetic induction of plasma states through glass walls.

Arc discharges were replaced by "magnetic mirror systems". Magnetic mirrors were a hybrid system, which relied on arc discharges in deuterium gas. They employed large external magnetic wrappings in which arc terminals were enclosed. It was found that higher temperatures could effectively be attained with this system, the magnetic "mirrors" blocking the excessive loss of particles and heat from the plasma ends. Nevertheless, these were arc terminal systems. Contaminants from the electrodes poisoned and limited the upper thresholds of heat stored in the plasmas thus produced. Mirror systems failed.

Projects changed from arc research to electrodeless discharge research. Mirror systems were abandoned, replaced by transformer-like magnetic containment systems. Magnetic containment went through several developmental improvements. The most notable early transformer-like plasma system was the famous Project Zeta, a British endeavor. The toroidal glass vessel of Project Zeta was poised in a large transformer core. Pumped by huge electrical oscillations, the torus sprang to burning life. There seemed great promise in this new avenue.

With the deployment of information on magnetic containment systems came a new zest for the research. "Loff' bars were developed by a Soviet plasma researcher of the same name. His thrilling successes with a magnetic system of his own design caught interest throughout the hot fusion world. The idea was the wrap the torus in various pitched coilings, as well as surround the torus with parallel bus bars.

The combined field symmetries stabilized and centralized the internally pinched plasma, reducing its own pulsations. But heat loss was still the main concern. No amount of applied energy could get the plasma up to ignition temperatures. It was not that size was the critical issue either. Most of these facilities were huge to begin with. The main engineering problem was not size. The main engineering problem in each of these hot fusion systems was the excessive heat loss. Inability to approach ignition thresholds kept the prize at a tantalizing distance.

Long before ignition could ever be attained. Hot fusion temperatures are enumerated in millions of degrees. No material on earth can withstand such a blast. There were materials problems as well as severe problems with containment. The ionized gas channels of these temperatures vaporized their containers, and research sites as well. In truth, none of the early systems could ever deliver the sufficient power needed to overcome the ion leakages. Moving through their containment systems like bees through nets, ions seeped fuel and heat away as fast as was supplied. As a result, all the potential ignition power simply seeped off in the heating process. This dangerous state often destroyed both the devices and the dreams of those who designed them.

After assessing the work of Dr. Loff, Western theoreticians proposed that a complexly wound "magnetic bottle" might hold the superhot plasma long enough for nuclear ignition to occur. Everyone who was not yet disappointed to tears jumped into the "magnetic containment game". Wrappings, symmetries, parallel Loff bars. Bars wrapped at angles, bars wrapped with coils, coils wrapped with opposing coils ... the magnetic combinations were endless. After all of these magnetic foibles, most of the American and British magnetic containment systems failed to achieve their theoretical results during their very first few trials.

New resistant plasma phenomena blocked all hopeful progress in this venture. Plasma instabilities. Thoroughly disgruntled magnetic containment researchers found that as power was applied to the gases, instabilities, ripples, and pulsating oscillations suddenly appeared throughout the plasma channel. It seemed as if nature simply did not want hot electrical fusion to happen! Plasma channels wriggled like unwilling snakes against the magnetic bottle, shaking off all of their energy in a single wriggle. In some cases, the superhot plasma columns burst through their metal chamber walls. These circumstances were extremely dangerous. Quasi-nuclear explosions did occur in test sites, radioactivity spilling out into facilities.

The score being a miserable record of defeats, none of the most serious and highly funded hot fusion ventures, unfortunately, succeeded. Each project failed to deliver the promise of sustained nuclear hot fusion power. Because of the numerous failed magnetic containment projects, most physicists simply left the controlled hot fusion race altogether. In methodic succession, and after several billion dollars were spent, it became apparent that magnetic containment systems would not succeed at all. There were those who preferred to collect grants, assuring themselves of bureaucratically "safe" positions. Rather than risk their yearly salaries on radically new scientific ventures, they chose alternate related routes of employment. Survivalism. There were those who used the fusion projects in "throwaway" fashion just to survive.

There are those whose jaded personalities have taken a survivalistic stance, already accepting that hot fusion is a dead-end. A dead-end, but a steady income. Many researchers stepped down from the "performance risky" pedestal of success oriented hot fusion projects, assuming lower profile positions as hot fusion theoreticians. Books sell better and longer. The royalties continue after each unsuccessful project. It was easy to write papers and analytical discussions on the numerous failed projects, simply because there were so many failures from which to draw "copy". Survival. Library shelves became flooded with these fusion-related papers and texts. But still no fusion reactor.


DREAMS DEFERRED

The loss of the Hot fusion Dream became another lost social quest, another socially prolific disappointment. It seemed that, after World War II, every potential new technology of promise was methodically assessed by regulators as "impractical and impossible". Curiously and conspicuously, these assessments all coincided with the early war effort in Viet Nam. Obviously the re-alignment of national interests followed the re-alignment of old money in Indochina. And financial re-alignments have no problem with the loss of any socially vital developments. Whether or not a providential discovery becomes socially proliferated is no concern of theirs.

But the consequences did not become desperate for regulators. A disappointed society can be controlled. Each lost social dream becomes a new social malaise. National demoralizations manifest when social myths are deferred. Therefore, the synthetic manufacture of new and continual myths, of new "dreams", is actively sought. Government propaganda mills replace each deferred hope. When once having dissuaded the natural flow of discoveries for the sake of old money interests, government regulators sponsor synthetic dreams to replace what they remove. But even the smallest child knows when a dream, a real dream, has been taken away.

Unfortunately and tragically, it is the adults who discover that the deepest dreams have not only been deferred, but made impossible to achieve. The production of alternative social goals and other myths makes its continual appeal for our attentions. Such false dreams are drawn from a rich surplus of dreamers and schemers found throughout the surplus American intelligentsia. Choosing one synthetic dream out of many has become regulatory policy. Bread and circuses.

The dream visions and goals, which a government hoists before the eyes of its citizens in state of the union messages, promotes a social poise, which can seem thrilling. Thrilling, for the spoken moment. But, if a dream vision has been truly obtained through the providential discovery source, then it alone succeeds. In the heart of every fantasy embellished dream, points a diamond truth. While the false prophets and their synthetic dream visions fell to the ground, like pretty paper kites in so many colored pieces, there was a truth to fusion. One man found it. The gross over funding of new hot fusion projects represents a means for maintaining public morale at a very subliminal level by means of a synthetic dream. It, however, is a funding campaign based in abject ignorance. Fusion was achieved. A successful fusion reactor was designed and tested. Tested, and forgotten.

The stubborn development of magnetic containers yet continues. Even the Russian Tokamak Reactor, however gigantic, cannot achieve the short-range controlled hot fusion objective. This is why their Western protagonists demand federal funding for another fifty years! During the 1970's there were notable and alternative experimental systems, which employed focused laser light to trigger hot fusion in hydrogen gas. But these huge systems, however alternative in approach, proved grossly ineffectual. It was later discovered that Sandia Labs conducted these experimental baubles to cover a military project in which the hundred-yard laser played an essential role. Dreams deferred. Hopes disappointed.

If not for a single significant lost chapter in the history of hot fusion research, we would have grounds to accept the chatter of those who supply their own needs by publicizing the already fulfilled quest. All of the academic banter and poised public relations campaigns stand in conspicuous contradiction to an event which occurred in 1965, when a working controlled hot fusion reactor was both successfully demonstrated and discarded before 1966 under suspicious circumstances. Even as these newest magnetic containment projects are being designed and attempted, a controlled hot fusion reactor had already been routinely operated.

This piece of information twists the nature of the Hot Fusion research game in a new way. For if a working Hot Fusion Reactor already existed, then why were stupendous floods of money continually being supplied to newer and more complex hot fusion projects? Was this contradiction a "funding project", a means for deferring the instantaneous deployment of the successful reactor on behalf of threatened petroleum cartels?

The reality of anyone controlling hot fusion reactions as early as 1965 (reaching self-sustaining reaction) sounds truly bizarre to anyone familiar with the historical publications. But this single technological instance is by no means the only time this century that such a contradiction was nationally framed. The forgotten science, which lies dormant in unstudied Patents and Victorian texts, will revolutionize the mind of anyone who dares break out of the conventional thought frame.

Fleeing the implications of an ever-regulated mind state, those who study in the sciences are often passionately forced into the Victorian literature where they rediscover true science. This is not a pleasant luxury for some. It is a necessity, which determines their very lives.

But dreams are fulfilled by those who seek them out. Those who are sought and touched by the Ray of Discovery know its power and desire for humanity. Despite the forgetfulness of scientific researchers, there are those whose hearts are pure enough to receive new dreams. New visions. Answers to the unknowns, which causes some to seek truth, as bearing solitary candles, in a windy night. Of all the venture projects, which chased after the elusive hot fusion Grail, one researcher succeeded. How fortunate we are to have found this document. For it will become plainly evident that, if it were possible to have eradicated this document, those who now own it would have done so. But since the device stands as part of the public record, we can rest assured of its status. Here is a tale, a biography, best recounted with solid evidence from the Patent Registry itself. The device was patented!


DR. PHILO T. FARNSWORTH

The true father of electronic television, Dr. Philo T. Farnsworth, found the practical key toward achieving hot fusion. He demonstrated his hot fusion reactor before several highly qualified groups of analysts. They saw the system in operation and yet testify that it really worked.

In a brief biographic sketch, it must be recalled that Dr. Farnsworth is the true father of electronic television. He is one of the most conspicuously disregarded inventors of the Twentieth Century. In 1927, the young high school student received the entire working design for the electronic television system in a single insightful ray. Scrawled out on a scrap of notepaper and saved by his high school physics teacher, the very drawing became the document, which sealed his name in later court proceedings.

His patents are remarkably advanced for their time. His ability to design electron tubes of extraordinary form allowed him to create incredibly new electronic components yet used by the military. No precedent had been set for electronic television. The system parts had to be invented. Proper design of the electronic television system required that every piece, every tube, every component be researched, tested, and implemented. In a rapid deployment of new designs, Dr. Farnsworth and his dedicated group of researchers designed, built, and implemented each part. During this arduous process, they learned how to manage the very production of their own parts, the television industry having developed among their members. This later enabled a small factory to be established for the manufacture of the various Farnsworth television systems.

At the time, no corporate enterprise was able to summon the genius in producing an adequate television system. Even R.C.A. relied on the old mechanical television systems as a primary base for developing a new system. These mechanical sets were the sparkling, whirling, multi-mirrored twirling wonders of an earlier Victorian time. Baird, Rosing, Jenkins, and other names come to mind when recalling those quaint and inspiring working designs. Others had brought mechanical television to its point of perfection. But the mechanical televisions, while being the perfection and wonder of their day, were little more than "flicker windows", producing vague and blurry shadows. Something utterly new was needed, some fresh departure into a new age of real television. That new departure was already patented and operational in Farnsworth's laboratories.

After several years and fortunes in failed attempts, RCA was forced to duplicate the results, which Farnsworth had developed. Ultimately they had to use the Farnsworth System as their chief model from which to..."glean" their own components. They used Dr. Vladimir Zworykin to achieve this theft. Zworykin's legendary "photographic mind" was employed, through his numerous "visits" to the Farnsworth Research Laboratories, to permit the complete re-design of every Farnsworth component under the R.C.A. crest. David Sarnoff was thereafter able to issue Zworykin's patents for a television system without paying Dr. Farnsworth a single penny or a word of gratitude. Nevertheless, the dream belonged to Dr. Farnsworth. Image dissectors, pulse transmitters, synchronizing oscillators, synchronous scanning, image analyzers, receivers, and special cathode ray tubes: Farnsworth conceived, designed, and hand-built each of them with his research team in 1926. Examination of the Farnsworth patents reveals nothing but novel tube designs, which remain without contemporary equal. Dr. Farnsworth developed numerous unusual tubes to make his television oscillators, receivers, and transmitters more efficient. No existing technology could match the performance characteristics of his UHF oscillators, electron multipliers, and cold cathode signal amplifier tubes.

Notable among these designs were cold cathode vacuum tubes, some of which employed soft radioactive materials to achieve unheard electronic performances. He developed photomultipliers, multipactors, Infrared imaging tubes, image storage tubes, and image amplifiers. Military night-vision is a Farnsworth invention. ITT makes billions of dollars from this single Farnsworth patent.


LITTLE STARS

Throughout World War II, Dr. Farnsworth continued to explore new electronic alternatives, designing radically new species of electron tubes, which became as famous as his earlier development of electronic television. The development of his "multipactor tube" was one such departure from convention. In this strange "cold" tube species, a photoelectric multiplying process saturates the vacuum with electrons. The simple application of a small direct current results in such an efficient avalanche of electronic charge that the tube bordered on "complete" efficiency. This meant that the input energy completely equaled the output energy, a condition not known in vacuum tube technology.

The multipactor tubes use opposed concave electrodes. In effect, they are concave electrostatic mirrors. These mirrors focus the ionized gases into tight little points, just as mirrors concentrate light. The concave mirrors permitted the re-discovery of electron optics; a phenomenon originally witnessed by Sir William Crookes in 1890 and "overlooked".

Dr. Farnsworth designed a great number of different multipactor tubes. His patent collection is enormous. Dr. Farnsworth noted very anomalous phenomena in several of his multipactor tubes. These included sharp energy surges on the output stages, which seemingly appeared "from nowhere". The possibility is strong that he discovered an entirely new kind of energy source, having nothing to do with hot fusion. It has been suggested that these surges were of cosmic origin.

While testing his high power UHF multipactor tubes in 1935, Farnsworth discovered a strange phenomenon, which caught his curiosity. Suspended in the tube center, he sighted a tiny brilliant blue starlike point. The little starlike point of light became more brilliant with increasing application of voltage. The little starlike points never touched the walls of the container, remaining fixed in the space where first sighted. Farnsworth recognized this feature as a control characteristic, which might somehow be employed in the future.

Farnsworth multipactor tubes can be small enough to be hand-held. The larger models are the size and volume of a thermos bottle. Used as UHF oscillators, they produce enormous outputs of power.

The optically focused little stars are instantly formed within the multipactor tube, exhibiting all the control-response characteristics later sought desperately by hot fusion reactor designers.

Farnsworth realized that hot ionized gases could be bound into these small starlike points, their rare stability managing any applied power load. The little stars could absorb and hold tremendous amounts of applied energy, an aspect that deeply impressed Dr. Farnsworth. His original notion was to utilize the principle in high power UHF transmitter tubes. For metallurgical purposes Farnsworth thought the process would have industrial applications. The star points could be directed into any material surface. Melting tiny holes in metals would be no problem for the intense freely floating little ionic star. Soon his mind turned toward nuclear energy. The starlike "plasmoids" could be loaded with any amount of electrical power and be maintained away from the container walls. They were stable, could absorb fresh gas and electrical power with theoretically no limit to the attainable temperatures. The notion of using the principle to construct a nuclear furnace deeply intrigued him.


THE "FUSOR"

Thermonuclear energy was used in the hydrogen bomb technology. The scientific community was astir with talk of hydrogen energy. Farnsworth also studied the problem of controlled thermonuclear energy. The gaseous temperatures had to be immensely high, and safely contained. By as early as 1953 he had conceived of a means for using the star like phenomenon to produce controlled nuclear hot fusion reactions. He published his theoretical research on usable hot fusion energy.

In 1959 H.S. Geneen (Raytheon) invited Dr. Farnsworth to address the ITT board of directors on controlled nuclear hot fusion. It was against the verbalized misgivings of the AEC that this lecture was presented. Farnsworth was then formally approached by ITT after announcing his plans to investigate hot fusion reactions. Farnsworth designed a new and dramatically original tube, which he named "The Fusor". In this new tube, the starlike plasmoids of deuterium were isolated, shaped, confined, treated, balanced, and moved absolutely without the need for magnetic confinement. He conducted the first tests in his own home laboratory space, the deuterium tanks and electrical cables running throughout the living room to the cellar. Shortly thereafter, preliminary tests on the first Farnsworth "Fusor" was performed in a small ITT basement laboratory. His first design for a hot fusion reactor system was realized late in 1958. ITT monitored all the research and brought its own supervisors into Farnsworth's team.

The "Fusor" is a device, which produces controllable hot fusion reactions and does not utilize magnetic confinement. The design is a radical departure from all the designs of its time, a simple optical electronic system. The Fusor is no larger than a softball. In its center is the electron-radiating cathode. This cathode is surrounded by a spherical anode. A group of deuterium guns are symmetrically mounted about the anode ball. Their beam axes face each other and intersect at the tube center, firing ionized fuel into the reactive focus. It is perhaps the most advanced electron power tube ever designed.

Deuterium gas particles are propelled and focused into the center of the tube, establishing the star-like plasma at the focus. Magnets are never needed to contain the gas. Nuclei, which are trapped in the starpoint, can never escape the focus. They are maintained in place by their own inertia and the incoming barrage. Deuterium nuclei are literally hammered into the required density in the central region by the process of "inertial containment", a term, which Farnsworth first coined. Potentially escaping nuclei are stopped by layers of surrounding charge until they are forced back into their center point. Ionic shells are held in the vise-like grip of applied power. Confinement power can be poured into this center almost indefinitely because the trapped nuclei cannot escape the field energy. Nuclei, which "fall" into the centermost virtual electrode, have fusion energies, and are contained at a density sufficient to produce controlled fusion reactions. With sufficiently high power applications, the hot fusion reaction can be sustained and controlled at will in the Fusor. Dr. Farnsworth worked out an elegant means for extracting the energies of fusion, energies that remain electronic in their nature. Developed fusion energy produces an electronic pressure blast against the applied energy field. This experimentally appeared as a dramatic back-surge in power. This electrical blast may be directly harnessed and used in external loads.

Even as stars govern their own output by expanding and reducing plasma density, the little stars were found to be remarkably resilient and resistive to instabilities. In fact, the only instabilities seen in the Fusor were those, which came from the outside. Tube external power instabilities required new safety systems to be developed. Maintaining the constancy of application required "pure" electrical inputs.

Magnetic containment never reached this degree of success. Farnsworth's system was compact, simple, elegant, and inexpensive. He solved the particle confinement and energy conversion problems in one simple design. On October 8, 1960, the Mark I Fusor produced a steady-state neutron count when deuterium was admitted into the device with very low power application. This meant that fusion was happening. What Farnsworth sought in these first tests lay in the control of fusion reactions under increasing power application. The self-sustaining reaction would be gradually approached in steps. Farnsworth established and charted increasing neutron counts with increasing application of electrostatic power. His methodic experimental method was necessary in the uncharted fusion territory. He repeatedly tackled the possibility of a "runaway" reaction, designing newer electron restraining guns to prevent this horror. It is suggested that the reader obtain and study copies of the Fusor patent for further understanding of this design aspect.


SELF–SUSTAINED FUSION

Farnsworth had to learn the operating parameters of a practical fusion reactor. Being a brilliant mathematician, his theoretical work was published along with the design patents. He established several criteria for testing the reality of achieving nuclear fusion in his system. The entire assembly was submerged in oil and was confined behind thick lead-concrete walls. The experiment took on a decidedly ominous tone after this procedure reconfigured the system. The entire Fusor reactor occupied the volume of a very small lecture hall. This volume included the power sources, tanks, shields, and monitoring devices. It was a rare miniature in the fusion art.

Dr. Farnsworth measured neutrons as an indicator of the fusion reaction occurring within the sphere. With deuterium gas in the Mark II-Model 2 Fusor a count exceeding 50 Mega neutrons per second was recorded. This device eventually produced 1.3 Giga neutrons per second in a sustained reaction for more than one minute. These reactions were stable, completely under the operator's control, and could be duplicated on command.

On October 5, 1965 the Fusor Mark II-Model 6 was tested. A reconfigured, high precision ion gun arrangement produced 1 Giga neutrons per second, a world-record in the art. On December 28, 1965 tritium was admitted into the test chamber, producing 2.6 Giga neutrons per second. Higher voltages produced greater neutron counts. With a mixture of tritium and deuterium Dr. Farnsworth's team measured and recorded 6.2 Giga neutrons per second.

The Mark III Fusor produced startling high records in quick succession. By the end of 1965 the team was routinely measuring 15.5 Giga neutrons per second. It must be remembered that this Fusor was yet the size of a softball. A Fusor having a diameter of just one meter would permit greater ignition power for a smaller time period, while multiplying its output power volumetrically. A Fusor could be built to any size, as power was required. Dr. Farnsworth reported that his team achieved a self-sustaining reaction on several occasions, and could repeat the effect. The thunderous vibrations of the Fusor are well reported by those who worked with Farnsworth. Many laboratory workers saw the brilliant white light of the Fusor in its early test runs ... right through the metallic shielding!

Dr. Farnsworth once invited a few individuals to watch a test-run of this feat one evening. As power was applied to the Fusor the neutron-reading meter achieved a steady threshold and there remained. Only a slight additional increment of power was applied. Then the needle went off the scale and stayed fixed. The room thundered. The light released behind the shield would have instantly and permanently blinded anyone. Although the ignition power was completely removed, the needle remained off-scale in excess of thirty seconds as the fusion reaction sustained itself. Controlled self-sustaining nuclear fusion of tritium nuclei was historically achieved in 1965.

Success had come. The patent record shows that Farnsworth finally achieved that goal in 1965. The upscaled Mark IV would have completely cornered the electric utility market for ITT. Large Fusor systems could be set up everywhere. The Fusor System proved successful throughout its forgotten seven-year research history. The establishment of Fusor power stations would have been more than cost-effective for ITT. It would have made them trillions the world over. Fusor reactors were simple to build, maintain, and operate. Dr. Farnsworth and his team had computed each company cost to the penny! Therefore, who called ITT to stop production?


FUSION CONTROLLED

With the announcement of these final achievements, Farnsworth was met by a totally unexpected and contradictory turn of events. ITT had been gradually absorbing the entire Fusor project throughout the few record-making years. All related patents were assigned to ITT even as Dr. Farnsworth's achievements arrived in successive steps. Suddenly ITT was "not interested" in the Fusor System.

It is both curious and contradictory that, while steady progress was being achieved at minimal cost, ITT was already planning to drop the Fusor project completely. Influenced by powerful professionally hired "lobbyists", executive board members were urging the eradication of the project. During this strange time, certain Wall Street analysts were publishing their "concerns" for ITT and its absorption of the Farnsworth subsidiary as a "terrible mistake". Farnsworth himself was made the direct focus of every corporate death word thereafter. Hired to assassinate the project and the project leader by yet unknown outside agencies, ITT folded up like wet cardboard under the pressure.

This complete contradiction is all too conspicuous, a familiar pattern in American technology. Outlandish accusations against ITT remain in the indelible historic record. Newspapers from the time period, journals, and other publications show the campaign. Nevertheless, and equally indelible, are the patents and periodical records which Farnsworth has left to us on controlled fusion. Who had "spoken" to ITT, dissuading them from further development of the Fusor reactor? The AEC was mounting the uranium fission race and the "anti-fusion" race simultaneously, using every tactic to achieve total dominance of the energy field.

A large reception at the Waldorf was astir with executive unrest concerning the Farnsworth research project. While dressing for the dinner that evening, Farnsworth suffered a stroke. He was thereafter suddenly "relieved" of his research project, now on the basis of his "now failing health".

Furthermore, ITT formally and publicly announced that the Fusor project was "a failure ... a dead-end". Dr. Farnsworth suffered another stroke on a plane ride back home.


COOL DOWN

During his long recuperative period Farnsworth decided that the Fusor should be privately developed to its complete perfection. After all, the Fusor was Farnsworth's own creation, why should he not pursue the course alone? Dr. Farnsworth tried to obtain his patents back from ITT. Considering their public announcement of his "dead-end" he believed they would be more than happy to sell him back the "wasted" patents. Since the Fusor was "a miserable failure" it would be he (not they) who be taking the loss by buying back what was considered worthless on the academic market.

He therefore contacted ITT and honestly announced his hopeful intentions. The answer came with quick, cold, and ready calculation, negative and impersonal. Under no circumstances would they ever release to him the right to pursue the Fusor project. Moreover, ITT legally warned Farnsworth that it would dominate all of his own private Fusor research forever, despite its "infeasibility". ITT cut all formal financial ties with Farnsworth and left him virtually bankrupt in 1966. Several Farnsworth patents yet maintain the entire ITT operation to this very day. In quick, methodically accurate legal moves, ITT asserted its complete ownership of all Fusor applications for the future. This curious response surrounds. a device which is declared a "dead-end"!

In July 1969 Farnsworth built a small Fusor lab in a Brigham Young University cellar room. With privately purchased equipment he continued his research with generous University support. Suddenly, however, creditors began crowding him on every side. Furthermore, it was impossible to obtain the necessary fuel materials. Deuterium and tritium gases were already regulated by legal means, and he was barred from purchase. During this time an offer came to him from SONY. By now he was unable to continue. Physically ill and emotionally scarred from his dealings with both RCA and ITT, he died in 1971. ITT sent nothing to his poor widow.


LIGHTS OUT

There are those noble individuals in whose hearts ride the dreams of whole societies and futures. Most younger academicians will not even recall Farnsworth's project. These individuals will usually protest that such a claim is not "scientifically possible". They arrogantly base their confident refutation on the vacuum of the critical piece of information: the Patent Record itself. Such scientifically biased refutations are patterned personality reactions, based on incomplete knowledge. Only suspicion best explains the cavalier manner in which the term "pseudo-scientific" has been flung about in the academic-industrial world these days. It is indeed marvelous that the phrase makes its appearance, after, always after a threatening scientific achievement has been scored by private researchers.

There are deeply entwined reasons why few have ever heard of Dr. Farnsworth's Fusor System. These reasons exceed the modern academic censure of this possibility. ITT now holds the Farnsworth patents, and bears the social debt of responsibility for suppressing Fusor Technology. ITT will not release them to public domain for licensing. ITT maintains this stance despite the twenty-year statute of limitations normally granted to United States Patents. Since 1982, the patents should have been fair game. ITT yet conspicuously withholds the rights of all privateers from formally developing and marketing the Fusor device. This is indeed an awkward poise for a device, which is "a miserable failure".

What threatens traditional financial dynasties more than a new discovery? Regulating what discoveries are "permissible" precedes what regulators decide is "allowable knowledge". In other words, the control of discovery precedes the control of knowledge. The control of knowledge precedes the control of awareness. And the control of awareness prevents new discovery on behalf of those whose financial interests are potentially threatened at any moment.

Fundamental natural discovery is the force around which corporations scurry, fearing the often-violent social and economic changes, which have historically followed the appearance of new discovery. To be ignorant of fundamental scientific discoveries is to be ignorant of both the present world condition and the future world-direction. Fundamental revolutionary technology represents a complete elevation of society into a new consciousness and world-condition. Fundamental revolutionary technologies such as Dr. Farnsworth's Fusor have been deliberately suppressed. We do not know with certainty the actual depth and extent by which the commands of suppression are dispatched. We do not know how far government agencies are involved in this process of suppressions. What we do know for certain is that a degenerate technology, a distorted and synthetic fragment of lost science, now guides the course of world history.

Technological revolution is real revolution. It is that which the dynasties most dread. Deferring potential technological revolutions infers control at the fundamental level: at the patent Office, at the market place, in the very courts of government. Deferred technology maintains the financial stability of a few "old families" at the expense of humanity at large. Science, the servant of providence and humanity, has lost its first love. It has lost its way because its ways were deranged by excessive and unwarranted financial involvements.

But, where is the knowledge of lost technology? Where does this knowledge reside? How does the knowledge surface? Who are the ones through whom the lost information is socially regained, proliferated, and acquired? Look in the patent archives. You will find them all safely, and legally, preserved. Hot fusion was achieved, scrutinized, judged, condemned, assassinated, buried, and censured. It is an episode, which is now "forbidden" to mention. It is remarkable that individuals in the fusion research teams across the world are even aware that their goal was realistically attained in 1965. Thirty years ago.

Among the incredibly prolific patents of Dr. Farnsworth remain two working designs for achieving practical nuclear fusion: patents 3.258.402 and 3.386.883 as found in the Registry. The patents themselves are textbook lessons in the fusion art. The designs of the device, which attained sustained fusion, is elegantly simple and can be examined. Such technological options, as global property, must be cultivated among disadvantaged nations. New technologies must never again die on Puritanic shores before visiting the other shores which lie beyond these national gates.

One remarkable property of natural discoveries is the incessant manner in which they appear. Discoveries appear before social crisis requires their development. Discoveries represent providential manifestations of grace. They must be honored as such, comprehended as messages against some desperate future hour. Discoveries are not restricted to specific locales. No single nation rules the flow and dispersion of natural discoveries. Those who seek the eradication of discoveries throughout the world will be destroyed. The consequences of eradicating technologies have a mysterious way of finding us out, by their deadly absence. In the hour of need, they keep their silence.

In truth, the vision, which is carved in stone, cannot be ruined. There it remains. Let those who study and devise their twisting way plot. Plan, scheme, bend, and turn. None will stop the day. The bright sapphire, a pure night vision, remains. Starpoints in the great radiant blackness, from which come all things. The dream seas surge, asking no permissions and giving gifts liberally. In a land not far off, where dreams and dreamers walk as one, there the love reigns and waits.


Cold Fusion  —  Edmond Storms, PhD
Taking the chill out of Cold Fusion

Thomas Henry Moray

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