This article deals with and involves subject matter and the use of materials and substances that may be hazardous to health and life. Do Not attempt to implement or use the information contained herein, unless you are experienced and skilled with respect to such subject matter, materials, and substances. Neither the publisher nor the author make any representation as for the completeness or accuracy of the information contained herein, and disclaim any liability for damages or injuries, whether caused by or arising from the lack of completeness, inaccuracies of the information, misrepresentations of the directions, misapplication of the information, or otherwhise.
James Clerk Maxwell first formulated his formulas in 1873. These formulas provided a mathematical foundation for relating observed electric and magnetic effects.
Until recently, the second solution to Maxwell's equations, the negative number ( Imaginary Numbers ) solutions, have been ignored by most of our industrial community. This has proven to be ... Quite an Over-sight !
These Solutions, further display the binary nature of our universe.
Maxwell's intuitive sense for the natural order in the world, lead him to the idea that, a changing electric field gives rise to an associated magnetic field.
Ampere's law says that, a magnetic field with apparent rotation is present around a small region when either, an electric current or a changing electric field is present in that region. This is one of Maxwell's equations.
Faraday showed that the work per unit charge, called the electromotive force in a coil of wire was related to the timerate of change of the magnetic flux enclosed by the coil.
Lenz's law says that a voltage and hence a current will be induced in a direction, in such a way, as to produce a magnetic field that tends to oppose the change in flux. The opposition is not complete, since the induced current dies away rapidly, due to the resistance, once the driving flux is held stable.
One of Maxwell's equations says that a changing magnetic field is associated with an electric field, whose apparent rotation about a point is proportional to the timerate of change of the magnetic field. Since the curl is not zero, an electric field associated with a changing magnetic field is, therefore, not conservative.
Gauss' law, plus Faraday's law gives a complete picture of an electric field. It has a divergence due to electric charge at a point, and it has curl due to changing magnetic field at a point. If there is no charge, there is no divergence; if there is no change in the magnetic field, there is no curl.
From the perspective of the coil, the physical effects on "q" are the same, implying that electric force and magnetic force are really manifestations of the same underlying phenomenon. (this is an essential fact of "electromagnetic theory, that led to Einstein's theory of relativity.)
Faraday's law relates an electric field, to a changing magnetic field. Ampere's law relates a magnetic field, to a changing electric field. A changing electric field is accompanied by a changing magnetic field, and vice versa. The four Maxwell equations, give a complete picture of the electric and magnetic fields.
The "field" concept, trys to associate something that happens at one point, with what happens at another point, even though there may be no material objects connecting those points.
Electromagnetic effects are described by use of mathematical quantities called quaternions, and the currently discredited elastic ether model, rather than, the modern idea of vector fields and empty space.
However, the 1887, Michelson and Morley experiment, that formed the basis of the "vector field" concept, was designed only to detect static elastic ether. No attempt was made to detect a highly dynamic ether. At the time, the technical equipment needed wasn't available.
The following observations, Can Not be explained via vector fields.
Maxwell's books are required reading, and possibly can explain the following Electrical Observations.
We started with a solenoid coil from a water valve. The coil was
rated at 220 VAC. and had a DC resistance of 68 ohms and an
inductance of 262 mh. 12 VDC was used to generate a changing
magnetic field in this air core coil.
A scope with a 10 meg 10 pf. input impedance was placed across the coil to monitor the coil's voltages.
The 12 VDC was briefly switched across the coil about 3 times a second and the results noted on the scope. A distinct ringing was noted when the DC circuit was broken. The ringing was measured to determine its frequency and it was found to be 24,080 hz. The ringing decayed in an exponential manner. It was noted that when a screw driver or a socked ratchet was placed in the coil core the ringing would be suppressed. However when a magnet was placed in the core no change in performance was noted.
A Fluke multimeter with a peak hold was used to measure the peak AC voltage and it was found to be 1352 volts.
The coil was load with first a 470,000 ohm resistor and then a 100,000 ohm resistor the amplitude of the output signal went down a little indicating that power was being delivered to the resistors.
The sensitivity of the scope was turned up to inspect the "hum interference" being picked up by the coil and it was noted, that there was a ringing on the induced 60 hz. signal on both the positive and negative portion of the wave form. The ringing started at the point on the waveform, just as the sign wave started to decrease from its maximum risetime. The ringing was again counted and again found to be 24,080 hz. An audio oscillator was set to 24,080 hz and we attempted to hook it to the coil. Upon approaching the coil with the 600 ohm feed lead, the subject amplitude increased dramatically and was sustained.
Much effort was given to the notion that the current pickup of the coil was due strictly to induction. The coil was placed inside a special magnetic alloy shield, with a resulting increase in the output current. This was just the opposite, of what we might have expected to happen. Many other efforts were made to determine if the coil was deriving the ringing energy from some source of electrical interference. After a couple of hours of effort, no source or other explication was discovered.
Another coil, with a length of 1000 ft. and a larger diameter, was tried and the same effect was noted, however, the ringing frequency was different. This coil rang at 108,450 hz.
Efforts were made to add a capacitive component, to the circuit, of the correct value (180 pf.) to enhance or tune out the ringing, with no effect either way observed.
Other efforts were made to alter the ringing effect, but few useful results were noted.
The coil was rated at 230 VAC 60 hz 17 watts, and had a DC resistance of 71 ohms.
A door bell buzzer was removed from the "coop", to be used as a vibrating switch to pulse the coil.
Steve and I met at Inteligo and hooked up the experiment. The buzzer was inserted into the circuit in such a was that the contacts of the buzzer pulsed the 12 VDC supply into the coil.
The scope was connected and measurements made. No ringing was noted and the voltage measured 50 volts pp. The waveform had the classic inductor discharge pattern.
The frequency of the buzzer was varied for each configuration of wiring and orientation. Always the same basic results.
Pulsing the coil by hand again, produced the 24,080 hz ringing waveform.
The buzzer was rewired to reposition the buzzer coil in the circuit, and measurements were made again. The same results were obtained.
The second coil was placed on top of the other coil.
The second coil was rotated 180 degrees, and placed on top again.
The second coil was placed next to, and away from, the first coil, etc.
The second coil was wired in parallel and the sequence repeated.
The sequence was repeated, pulsing the coil by hand. Same results, while displaying the 24,080 hz ringing.
A 50,000 volt diode was placed in the circuit, between the coil and bulb, and the measurements were made at the bulb. The full waveform was seen on the screen.
A high voltage capacitor was placed after the diode, and hooked to the other side of the coil (ground). Pure DC was seen on the scope, in excess of the scope's voltage range.
The Fluke was used to measure the "real time" voltage. With hand pulsing, voltages in the range of 320 DC were obtained.
The Fluke was set to measure peak DC voltage, and with hand pulsing a reading of 2000 VDC was obtained with the 10 meg. scope and bulb also in parallel.
12 VDC was wired to the heater element, at one end of the bulb, to facilitate the ionization of the mercury, but the bulb still did not display luminance.
Came to some conclusions and developed our plans for the next
This should do it... The bulb will light.
Site Link List - Element List - Hydroculture Salts
The Tortoise Shell Life Science Puzzle Box Front Page