Zeta Potential is a measure of the electrical force that exists between
atoms, molecules, particles, suspensoids, cells, etc., in a fluid.

Not everything in your solution is fully dissolved to the atomic level !!!

Understanding Colloidal Suspensions

is actually understanding the "Electro-Magnetic World" of Your Plant Food Solution.

The Electro-Magnetic and Electro-Mechanical forces, generate the dynamics of your solution.

It is the "Electric World" that allows atoms to form molecules. This Binary World of plus ( + ) and minus ( – ) electrical tensions, allow the formation of the "Dance Circles" we call Molecules. This force acts like springs connecting the various atomic nuclei and suspended particles. Any movement in this spring, we call Heat. The condition of no movement, we call Absolute Zero ( = the condition of no heat ).

Each molecule has a personality that is more than the sum of its parts. These additional qualities are brought about by the relationships that each Atom's nuclei has with its neighbors. Each relationship has a property known as resonance. This resonate quality allows us to identify different molecules and their properties, through the use of resonate imaging technology. —Tommy—

-----Original E-mail Message-----
That started this page on Colloidals.

From:   Frank Hartman     suemc@gate.net
Subject:   This article explains part of a missing piece.

I strongly suggest you read, "Control of Colloidal Stability by Zeta Potential", by Thomas M. Riddick.

Colloidal Experiments Colloidal Experiments

The two plants at the top went 148 days in water with NO nutrients added. Continued to blossom, lose blossoms, grow new buds and flower; no roots.

At the bottom are Coleas, full grown, very woody.

Root growth shown took six days and roots were not only growing in the water but in the air over the water.

Colloidal Experiments

Like your site.

Frank Hartman

P.S.   Here are some of my favorite links   ...

National Dictionary — 1941 Edition

COLLOID — a substance such as gelatin or starch, which apparently dissolves in water, but which diffuses slowly, if at all, through a membrane; a gelatinous substance secreted in certain diseases.

Webster's New World Dictionary — 1980

COLLOID — { coined by Thomas Graham ( 1805-69 ) Scot. chemist }

A solid, liquid, or gaseous substance made up of very small, insoluble, nondiffusible particles (as single large molecules or masses of smaller molecules) that remain in suspension in a surrounding solid, liquid, or gaseous medium of different matter.

A state of matter consisting of such a substance dispersed in a surrounding medium. All living matter contains colloidal material, and a colloid has only a negligible effect on the freezing point, boiling point, or vapor tension of the surrounding medium.

The material within which the thyroid gland stores its hormones: it is a protein containing iodine.

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics — Forty-forth edition, printed May, 1963

Colloid. — An entity phase dispersed to such a degree that the surface forces become an important factor in determining its properties.

In general particles of colloidal dimentions are approximately 10 angstroms ( 10–9 m ) to 1 micron ( 10–6 m ) in size. Colloidal particles are often best distinguished from ordinary molecules due to the fact that colloidal particles cannot diffuse through membranes which do allow ordinary molecules and ions to pass freely.

Colloidal Suspensions

From Rockefeller Center Weekly 1Q35, Center Publications, Inc. — Oct. 1935
Published Readers Digest, March 1936, as "Chemistry's Miraculous Colloids".
Submitted by Frank Hartman - Comments by Tommy Cichanowski

At the time of publication of Alexander's "Colloid Chemistry – Volume 2" in 1929, great advances were being made in biology, agriculture and medicine with colloidal suspensions.

A group of executives sat tense and silent in an office in the RCA Building in New York City. They stared with incredulous eyes at a purple orchid. A short time before it had been rescued, a withered, yellowed thing, dead. Now the petals were fresh and crisp, its color vivid. It was blooming with new life, and would continue to do so the next 16 or 17 days.

*** A Humic Acid Colloidal Molecule ***
Northeastern University Humic Acid Research Group 
Link to --- About Humic Substances. Dr. Frederick S. Macy, one of the country's outstanding bacteriologists, had added a teaspoonful of an amber-tinted liquid to a quart of water in the bottle, which held the flower. Here was a striking indication of the mysteries that lie ahead in the comparatively unexplored realm of science known as colloidal chemistry.

It was one of innumerable experiments these gentlemen had been witnessing for a year or more, on behalf of their internationally known pharmaceutical company. A few days later they signed an 18-year contract for the rights to a solution similar to the one in Dr. Macy's bottle. They will invest more than $2,000,000 a year on it from now on. To gain a working conception of what colloidal chemistry is, consider that living tissues and organs are simply great ...

systems of organized dancers. The dancers are the many Atomic Forms existing on this planet. Their inter-weaving "Circle Dances", form our bodies and our material world.

Understanding Suspensions

( Electricity at work in fluids, at the Atomic Level. )


The study of chemistry is primarily focused on ionic chemistry, ( i.e. ) the action of chemistry on solutions.

An Ion is simply an Atom, Molecule, or Particle displaying an Electrical Characteristic that we define as plus ( + ) or minus ( – ) and assign a quantum value of amount. —Tommy—

Ion. — An ion is an atom or group of atoms that is not electrically neutral but instead carries a positive or negative electric charge. Positive ions are formed when neutral atoms or molecules lose valence electrons; negative ions are those which have gained electrons.

Ionization potential. — The work ( expressed in electron volts ) required to remove a given electron from its atomic orbit and place it at rest at an infinite distance. It is customary to list values in electron volts (ev.)   1 ev. = 23,053 calories per mole.   ( Mole = the Molecular Weight in grams,  multiplied by   6.02 • 1023 Atoms )

Metals, minerals, inorganic materials, proteins and amino acids are held in suspension in liquids and not solution. They are microscopic and submicroscopic particles like dust particles in the air. These very small particles are called colloids.

Metallic Elements in general are distinguished from the non-metallic elements by their lustre, malleability, conductivity and usual ability to form positive ions. Over 80% of the elements in the periodic table are metallic in nature.

In order for a material to have metallic properties, electrons must be free to run throughout the Lattice Structure. And in order to have a lattice structure, there must be multiple atoms to form a crystalline like structure. So, a single or a few atoms do not have a lattice structure and therefore do not manifest metallic properties.

Non-metallic Elements are not malleable, have low conductivity and never form positive ions.

Metals. — It takes a twelve-atom cluster before they become electrically conductive. It takes thirteen atoms for their true metallic properties to begin to appear. It takes a cluster of thirty-three atoms before they become fully metallic, and will grow all by themselves. At thirty-three they form a "face center cubic", a first basic growth structure of three dimensions solidly formed like a cube.

Minerals. — Many minerals will be going into and out of solution, depending on solution concentration, etc. The result is many microscopic crystals of the mineral in suspension.

Salt. — Any substance which yields ions, other than hydrogen or hydroxyl ions. A salt is obtained by displacing the hydrogen of an acid by a metal.

Etc. — Many substances are bonded too tightly together to be dissolved by water ( with any impurities in it ). —Tommy—

Since colloids in suspension form chemical compounds like ions in solution, the suspension characteristics of colloids are generally ignored.

Colloids are held in suspension via, a very slight Electro-negative charge on the surface of each particle. This charge is called Zeta Potential.

Zeta Potential = Very slight Electro-negative charge on the "surface" ( Outer Orbital Regions or "Virtual Shell" ) of "particles".     Like charges repel each other, so "Particle Domains" with negative outer regions will move away from each other — Nature's anti-collision system. { Can you say, "Rubber Baby Buggy Bumper"? } — { Faster }   —Tommy—

The ability of a liquid to carry material in suspension is a function of these minute electrical charges. As the Electro-negative charge increases, more material can be carried in suspension. As the charge decreases, the particles move closer to each other and the liquid is able to carry less material. There is a point where the ability to carry material in suspension is exceeded, and particles begin to clump together with the heavier particles materials dropping out of the liquid and coagulating.

"Transition Group Elements" can interact in two dimensions, in a unique continuous linear movement between a strong repulsive force when close enough to each other, and a strong attractive force when moved apart at a certain distance. Only when the repulsive force is overcome, will these atoms aggregate to form a union. — David Hudson

Atoms that have quantum orbits with just a single electron present, bounce around like a wheel that is seriously out of symmetry. This mechanical motion acts against the electric field spring effect, producing a resonate quality. This motion is one of the components of Heat. The other components of heat act against the Electric Force also. It should make sense then, that if these energies become strong enough to achieve the needed momentum, they can momentarily over power the electric Zeta force and allow the short ranged "Magnetic Force" to link and form a chemical–electro-magnetic bond.   —Tommy—

This phase change is quite similar to temperature variation in water. Just as a 10-degree temperature shift in water has no significant effect at 70 degrees F, but a major effect at 35 degrees; so, it is with colloids in suspension. Each liquid has a phase change point where very slight changes in the Electro-negative charge can produce large effects. This whole area of study is known as Colloidal Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Surface Change, or Zeta Potential. It is a mixture of both physics and chemistry.

This phase change in liquids can be very useful. Growing Ceramic Crystal Fibers with the VLS process takes advantage of this effect. —Tommy—

Stability of Solution-Zeta Potential from "A Control of Colloidal Stability"
by Thomas Riddick

Stability Average Zeta Potential (In millivolts)
Extreme to very good stability –100 to –60 mv
Reasonable stability  –60 to –40 mv
Moderate stability  –40 to –30 mv
Threshold of light dispersion  –30 to –15 mv
Threshold of agglomeration  –15 to –10 mv
Strong agglomeration & precipitation  –5  to  +5 mv


The processes and explanations that follow, as well as their associated ramifications, are based on a more complete exploration of the power of this mechanism of action and the factors that influence colloidal stability. — Frank Hartman

Mechanisms of Action and Influencing Factors

Colloids in suspension determine the ability of all liquids particularly water-based liquids to carry material. This also applies to semi-solids and solids but liquid is the focus of this paper.

The ability to carry material or a carrying capacity of a liquid is influenced by composition, surface tension, centrifugal and centripetal motion, polarized light and magnetic fields.

Basic Elemental Composition

All elements, except the noble gases with no valence, are either Electro-positive or Electro-negative. The relative quantity of positive and negative charge in a liquid determines carrying capacity. Electro-positive ions decrease carrying capacity while Electro-negative ions increase it. Elements with only one positive or one negative ion have little effect on suspensions. Elements with two positive or two negative ions ( divalent ) such as magnesium and beryllium ( +2 ) or oxygen and selenium ( –2 ) have 3,000 times more effect on carrying capacity than elements with single ions. Elements with a valiance of three, such as iron and aluminum ( +3 ), nitrogen, and phosphorus ( –3 ) have 6,000 times more effect on carrying capacity than an element with a single positive or negative ion.

It follows that the addition of a very small amount of an element with three positives or three negative ions ( trivalent ) can have a massive effect upon carrying capacity particularly near the phase change point.

Surface Tension

Surface tension is a measure of the adherence of a material to itself, the tenacity with which it resists expansion and the attraction between molecules. In water, the mechanism allows a needle to float on top or an insect to walk across it.

Some general rules are: if carrying capacity increases, surface tension decreases; if carrying capacity decreases, surface tension increases. Surface tension and particle charge are most easily understood if we think of positive charges and increased surface tension as binding together or concentrating and negative charges and decreased surface tension as expanding or dissipating. The greater the surface tension and the lower the Electro-negative charge, the more any material, such as water, will bind together and coagulate or concentrate.

Adding a surfactant ( a surface-active agent ) such as detergent can decrease surface tension, but this will not increase carrying capacity unless it changes the basic colloidal chemistry of the liquid by adding a material with negative ions. Surface tension and Zeta potential are not strictly related.

In addition, a surfactant can decrease surface tension ( good ) but also move Zeta potential to a lower Electro-negative number. In many cases in aqueous solutions, increases in the Electro-negative charge, i.e. Zeta Potential will decrease surface tension.

Other Variables

Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism

Oxygen is highly paramagnetic; ( attracted to a magnetic field, but not magnetized ). Hydrogen is highly diamagnetic; ( repelled from a magnetic field but not magnetized ). Under normal circumstance, these are such weak forces that they are not considered significant. In vortex flow, they have a more significant effect.

When passed through a strong magnetic field, oxygen molecules tend to be attracted towards the field and hydrogen molecules repulsed from the field.

Water is one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen. The two atoms of hydrogen make it diamagnetic.

Water has two single plus ions from hydrogen and one divalent negative ion from oxygen ( –2 ). The divalent Oxygen has 3,000 times the effect on carrying capacity and Electro-negativity as the single plus charges of hydrogen ion; thus, water has a slight Electro-negative charge.

Mini-Vortices — The bubbling air into water and turbulence create multiple mini-vortices. This has a direct influence upon the carrying capacity of a liquid. Generally, bubbling air introduced under the water surface will decrease surface tension depending on the direction of rotation.

Substances in Colloidal Suspension

Substances in colloidal suspensions, even in quantities far above the recognized lethal level, have few toxic effects. Fish, for example, will survive and thrive in water with six times the lethal concentration of lead, arsenic, and many other substances considered toxic if the water has the right charge and the material is in colloidal form. In non-colloid form, fish death is rapid at far lower concentrations. The reason is beyond the scope of this paper but living systems can take what is needed from colloids and pass the rest with little harm. If surface charge and carrying capacity are degraded, colloids begin to clump together into larger and larger ( although still microscopic ) particles.

The electrical charge is a function of the total surface area of the particles. A one-inch metal cube has a surface area of 6 square inches. Divide it into small colloids and the area increases to over 5 million square inches each with a small electrical charge.

Reduction in the surface charge first causes gentle settling of small particles, as colloids lose enough charge to clump and settle out of the liquid. The heavy metals generally come out first and symptoms of heavy metal poisoning may appear. As surface area and charge decrease, the larger particles bind to receptors, preventing chemical release at the synapse, which may be disguised as mental, emotional or physical problems. The process is little different from scale forming in pipe. Arterial sclerosis is another example. As the carrying charge of the blood is reduced, material deposits on the artery walls, just as scale does on the pipe.

Obviously, lead, arsenic, cadmium or other trace, heavy metals in a living system react the same. As the electrical charge drops, they are no longer colloids, settle out and clump at receptors. Reduction of the carrying charge now appears as lead or other heavy metal poisoning. Lead poisoning or other heavy metal poisoning is an effect not the cause. The cause is the reduction in carrying charge. The amount of lead may be the same over the whole life span and may not manifest itself until other factors reduce the total system charge.

Children are particularly susceptible to such poisoning. The primary cause may be early vaccination ( aluminum stabilizers used in vaccines ) coupled with reduced carrying capacity from the parent aggravated by the food and water supply. FDA estimates of dietary intake for six, the 11-month-old child of .7 / gm per day, grain are undoubtedly low. Vaccines, allergy skin tests, 25% human serum albumin, baby skin creams ( stabilized with aluminum ), and prenatal IVs, baby diaper wipes and antacids which are frequently given to infants in an IV are extremely high in aluminum.

For adults, the accumulation continues, from suntan lotion, cookware, aluminum cans and skin moisturizers. Deodorant, vaginal douches and baby wipes are not only high in aluminum but are applied to areas where there is far greater tendency for absorption through the skin.

The reduced surface charge can manifest as symptoms of degenerative disease like osteoporosis. The cause is not calcium intake. The cause is reduced carrying capacity, which destroys the blood's ability to carry minerals in suspension to bone. Heart attacks are another example of blood suspension being reduced to the phase change point where any stressor will trigger massive coagulation.


Understanding of the basics of surface charge and the factors affecting it opens new insights to reversing our environmental problems, health and water treatment. Many manufacturing processes can be modified and simplified with these understandings. The detailed interactions of various colloids in solution are far more complicated and sophisticated than they appear here but the principles are simple. While colloidal chemists understand in detail the actions of colloids in solution, the understanding of the factors enumerated here, which affect them and the principles on which they are based is missing.

Atmospheric Spraying and Well depth — Atmospheric spraying such as in irrigation, decreases the carrying capacity due to the mixing of carbon dioxide in the air ( 0.03% ) with the liquid, this reduces pH.

The amount of solids in water increases in strata with the depth of wells.

pH is a measure of how acid or alkaline a substance is.

pH 7 is balanced, equally alkaline and acid. As pH becomes more acid ( down to pH 3 ) carrying capacity decreases. As pH becomes, more alkaline ( up to pH 11 ) carrying capacity increases as a result of the increase in hydrogen ions. This varies a great deal depending on what elements are in solution.

Alkalinity and surface tension changes are a result of changes in hydrogen bonding in water.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Certain electromagnetic radiation frequencies decrease the carrying capacity. While there are many frequencies not yet measured, 60-cycle alternating current will produce a decrease in carrying capacity.

Summary of Effects

Methods that Temporarily Increase Carrying Capacity

Since carrying capacity is a function of the Electro-negative charge on particles, it is possible to artificially increase and create a higher Electro-negative field which will temporarily ( up to about 8 hours ) increase or decrease the carrying capacity of a liquid. The nature of the charge on these particles is essentially an electrostatic one similar to the charge that builds up on the body when walking across a carpet that creates a spark when metal is touched. During the time this artificial increase is present, the particles in suspension react as if the basic chemistry was changed. The carrying capacity will increase and the surface tension will decrease. When the artificial charge on the particles dissipates however, the carrying charge of the liquid will theoretically return to the same carrying charge as before the charge was increased. In essence, it will relax back to the original values.

In actual practice, this rarely occurs. During the time the carrying capacity is higher and the surface tension is lower, the liquid will have dissolved more material into solution due to the higher wetting action, the ability to penetrate through smaller pores and increased capillary action resulting from the lower surface tension. More material is likely to be in suspension, picked up and carried while the increased carrying capacity was higher from the higher surface charge. When the liquid relaxes as the artificial field dissipates, these additions may have changed the chemical composition, and the particles will find a new equilibrium point which may be higher or lower depending on the particles which have been taken into suspension. If the artificial charge is maintained at a constant level, the effect is little different than changing the basic chemistry.


Aluminum toxicity is a widespread problem in all forms of life, including humans, animals, fish, plants and trees, and causes widespread degradation of the environment and health. Over 7000 reference articles on aluminum toxicity exist in various data bases; ( as of 1996 ) all recognizing the toxicity but concluding the mechanism of action is unknown. — [ Search results - scirus.com ]

Despite the number of references to aluminum toxicity, the FDA has always exempted it from testing from testing by putting it on their "Generally Regarded as Safe" ( GRAS ) list.   Aluminum can be added to foods, medicines or water without restriction from the FDA.

[ Aluminum is known to stop cell division during the "S Phase", at levels less than 4 ppm. ]

The mechanism of action of aluminum toxicity is aluminumís effect on carrying capacity or Zeta Potential. Aluminum is relatively non-toxic in and of itself. However, it destroys the carrying capacity of a liquid.

Aluminum has three ( 3 ) positive ions, so a single ion of aluminum will reduce surface charge, reduce carrying capacity and increase surface tension by 6,000 times the amount that an ion of Sodium, which has one ( 1 ) positive charge, would. Aluminum remains tightly bound in soil and metal except in acid conditions. Acid conditions cause the ions of aluminum to leech into surrounding material, thus impairing or destroying the carrying capacity of the water to carry nutrients. The simplest illustration is with plants and trees. As aluminum is either leached from the soil due to ( low pH ) acid rain introduction from piping and certain fertilizers, it then impairs or destroys the ability of water to carry nutrients throughout the plants and trees.

Minerals, proteins, amino acids and some hydro-oxides are all directly affected.

When the carrying capacity and / or surface charge is significantly reduced nutrient flow to the plants and trees ceases. It makes no difference how much of the nutrient is added to the soil ( unless it is an Electro-negative nutrient ), if water cannot carry it into the plant.

The most common agricultural solution is to add lime to increase the pH. Increasing pH is treating a symptom not the cause.

The degradation is further compounded by the increased surface tension, which does not allow water to flow through small pores and capillaries.

The discussion and concern about acid rain in the northern forests is not an acid rain problem, but rather a problem of lowered pH from acid rain that leaches aluminum into the soil and reduces the Zeta Potential. The ions of aluminum get into surface water, reduce the carrying charge ( ZP ), and increase the surface tension creating a devastating effect on forests. There are many, obvious simple solutions to this problem once the mechanism is understood.

Also See ...
Special Properties of the "Transition Group Elements"
and ...
What's a Picolinate?

More About Colloids and The Field's History

-----Original Message-----

From: LINVENT@aol.com
Sent: Monday, January 31, 2000 10:18 PM


Very interesting materials on colloids.

Our basic material which we mine has a CEC of 900-1200 meq / 100 gms, ( millequivalents / gram ) and has very powerful colloidal properties.   —   Clod Buster

It has been sold as a miracle medicine or tonic by quite a few people, we may want to get into this business. Some of our clients have fabulous results taking it, as do their animals, all from colloidal chemistry.

Thanks for the report.

We will probably want to add the colloidal mineral story to our website.

Tom Taylor

Vaccination Hazards
Some additives are extremely harmful.
Both Aluminum and Mercury cause cognitive dysfunction.

"Control of Colloidal Stability by Zeta Potential"
by Thomas M. Riddick

Dr. T.C. McDaniel — "Using Zeta Potential as a Healing Tool"

The Science of Kinesiology

The Art of Healing Ourselves

Tommy's History of Electricity

The Hydroponic Reference Center

Energy Deficiency and Cancer

Electrical Spinal-Cord Stimulation
Relieves Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

Using Hydroponics to Understand the Earth's Life Processes
On the Atomic Level

The Ultimate Water - The Elixir of Life

Web Site Link List   Hydroculture Salts

The Tortoise Shell  "Science of Health"  Newsletter
— Putting an End to Disease on Our Planet —

Tortoise Shell Life Science Puzzle Box – Front Page

View this page Full Frame