V
Vanadium

at. no. 23, at. wt. 50.95, metal, row 5, col. 5B, val. 2-3-4-5, orbits 2-8-11-2


{Merck Index - © 1952 by Merck & Co., Inc.}

Vanadium. V; at. wt. 50.95; at. no. 23; valence 2-3-4-5. Discovered by Sefström in 1830; prepared by Roscoe in 1869. Occurs in the minerals vanadinite, chileite, patronite, carnotite; constitutes about 1 X 10–2 % of the crust of the earth. Prepn.: Prandtl, Manz, Z. anorg. Chem. 79, 209 (1912); Marden, Rich, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 19, 786 (1927).

Light-gray or white lustrous powder or fused hard lumps; not tarnished in air and not appreciably affected by moisture at ordinary temperature. m. 1717°; d18.7 5.68. Insoluble in water. Not attacked by hot or cold hydrochloric acid, by cold sulfuric acid; soluble in hot sulfuric acid, in hydrofluoric acid, in nitric acid, in aqua regia. Not attacked by bromine water, by aq. alkalies.

The metal precipitates gold, silver, and platinum from their salts; reduces mercuric salts to mercurous, ferric salts to ferrous.

Use: Manuf. resistant vanadium steel.

Toxicity: The pentoxide dust has been reported to be a respiratory irritant and to cause skin pallor, greenish-black tongue, chest pain, cough, dyspnea, palpitation, chest and lung changes. When ingested causes G.I. disturbances.

 
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