Mixing it All Together

Incorrect Mixing is Dangerous !

The first known scientist, who wanted to know what would happen, if he mixed hydrogen and oxygen together, and then set off a spark in the Mixture, didn't live to recount his experience. ( Hydrogen will Explode within the fuel/air mixture range of 3 – 97% !   Gasoline in the fuel/air range of 11 – 13%. )

The Space Shuttle uses Hydrogen for Rocket Fuel.

You can do a 100,000 little component tasks, (Weighting, analyzing, measuring, diluting, calibrating, ... ) with Absolute Perfection, and Yet, if you do the next task far enough out of range, You are Dead !

Or, in hydroculture, your Plants Die, or they don't perform properly !

A Most Important Rule

  • Always add the Acid to the Water when Mixing!

    Many acids will produce an Exothermic Reaction when they are diluted. This means that they release heat energy. This heat can "boil" the water forming a bubble of steam which will rise to the surface and break, spraying acid about, possibly in your eyes.

    (A good "plug" for wearing your safety glasses.)

    Always be prepared for the worst.

The Rule of Time

  • Time, time, it all takes time.
  • What is time ?
  • Its waiting for a reaction to complete.

Some times a mineral salt may need a day or more to completely disolve. Your dilutions also, need time to become homoegeneous.

Many reactions complete faster in warmer solutions or with agitation.

Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions

We mentioned exothermic reactions with regard to acids earler; mineral salts too, can release heat when water is added. The safest way to proceed is to fill your container about 80% and then slowly stirr in the salt. When the visible granules disappear, add water to make your full unit quanity and shake or let stand for several minutes or more.

Endothermic reactions require heat. Some salts will cool the solution when they are disolved.

Very Pure Water

Water will disolve almost anything, so, completely pure water is a lofty ideal.

  • Rain water has about 400 ppm of impurities.
  • Average well water has impurities in the 2,000 ppm range.

A good hydroculture solution should actually be within that range. (400 – 2,000 ppm)


Suprise !     Its All One Big Dance.

Just when you though that you had all your elements in solution, something "unexpected (?)"   happened !

Want to See ?

    Disolve ½ teaspoon of Epsom Salt in 30 cc. pure water. Disolve another ½ teaspoon of Calcium Nitrate in another 30 cc. of pure water in a different container. Allow them to completely disolve.

    Now pour them both together in a clear container and watch closely. Don't blink now !   Presto !   What Happened ?

MgSO4 + Ca(NO3)2   =   CaSO4 + Mg(NO3)2

The elements switched "Dance Partners" !

The new relationship is more stable and at a lower energy level. At this energy level, in this salt concentration, the calcium sulphate becomes insoluable, comes out of solution and settles to the bottom. This is the concept of precipitation and is sometimes used to remove impurities from a solution.

Keeping Over 22 Salts in Solution

We call the force that controls the amount of solute a liquid can contain Zeta Potential.

Zeta Potential is a measure of the electrical force that exists between atoms, molecules, particles, suspensoids, cells, etc., in a fluid.

Zeta Potential represents a basic law of Nature, and it plays a vital role in all forms of plant and animal life. It is the force that maintains the discreteness of the billions of circulating cells, which nourish the organism.

The stability of simple inorganic man-made systems is governed by these same laws. The relevance and application of these principles is the subject of this book.

"Control of Colloid Stability through Zeta Potential"
Thomas M. Riddick

Click Here to Continue Tour. Hydroponic Reference CenterPlants are Engery Converters

Understanding Colloidal Suspensions

The Tortoise Shell Life Science Puzzle Box – Front Page