atomic no. 32, atomic wt. 72.60, metal, row 5, col. 4B, val. 4-2 orbits 2-8-18-4

{Merck Index - © 1952 by Merck & Co., Inc.}

Germanium. Ge; at. wt. 72.60; at. no. 32; valence 4-2. Discovered by Winkler in the mineral argyrodite: Winkler, J. prakt. Chem. 34, 177 (1886). Predicted and called ekasilicon by Mendelèeff. Occurs in germanite, canfieldite, cylindrite; in certain American zinc oxide ores and in very small quantities in nearly all silicates. Extraction of the metal: James, Fogg, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 51, 1459 (1929); Johnson, et al., ibid. 57, 1828 (1935). Spectrum: Gartlein, Phys. Rev. 37, 1704 (1931).

Grayish-white, lustrous, brittle metal; m. 958.5°; (Ref.) d2020 5.35. Insoluble in water, hydrochloric acid, dil. alkali hydroxides; soluble in aqua regia, in conc. nitric or sulfuric acid, in fused alkalies, alkali peroxides, nitrates, or carbonates. Relatively stable, unaffected by air, becomes oxidized above 600°; is slowly oxidized by hydrogen peroxide at room temperature, fairly rapidly at 90°; is attacked by hydrogen above 1000°. When finely divided, burns in chlorine or bromine. Forms two series of compounds in which the metal is respectively di- and tetra-valent.

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