atomic no. 17, atomic wt. 35.457, non-metal, row 4, col. 7A, val. 1-7, orbits 2-8-7

{Merck Index - © 1952 by Merck & Co., Inc.}

Chlorine. Cl; at. wt. 35.457; at. no. 17; valence 1-7. Discovered in 1774 by Scheele. Produced electrolytically from aqueous solns. of alkali metal chlorides or from fused chlorides.

Greenish-yellow gas; suffocating odor; dangerous to inhale. At –40° or at +15° and 5.7 atmos. it forms a yellowish-green liquid in which form it is marketed in steel cylinders. One kilo liquid chlorine yields 300 liters gas at ordinary temp. d. gas 3.214 (air = 1); d –4 liquid 1.557. b. –34.6°. Solidif. –10°. 61 One vol. water at 10° dissolves 2.7 vols. of Cl (0.8,% by wt.), 2.3 vols. at 20° (0.7% by wt.), 1.8 vols. at 30° (0.5% by wt.).

Use: Largely for mannf. chlorinated lime which is used in bleaching all kinds of fabrics; for purifying water; disinfecting; detinning and dezincing iron; manuf. rubber substitutes, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and a large number of other chemicals.

Commercially available.

Toxicity: Violent respiratory irritant. Produces pallor; cold, clammy skin; weak pulse; difficulty in breathing, pulmonary edema, and can be fatal.

Max. allowable concn. for prolonged exposure 1 ppm. Max. allowable for ½ to 1 hr. exposure 4 ppm. Rapidly fatal with short exposure 1000 ppm.

{Mineral Deficiencies in Plants}

The evidence of the role of chlorine in plants is somewhat contradictory and no general statement can be made. In tobacco it has been shown to increase the water content of the tissues and to affect carbohydrate metabolism, leading to an accumulation of starch in the leaves. The element is present in plants as chloride and is wholly soluble.

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